Skip to main content

Full text of "Some account of George Washington's library and manuscript records and their dispersion from Mount Vernon, with an excerpt of three months from his diary in 1774 while attending the first Continental Congress, with notes"

See other formats


III. SOME ACCOUNT OF GEORGE WASHINGTON'S LIBRARY AND MANU- 
SCRIPT RECORDS AND THEIR DISPERSION FROM MOUNT VERNON, 
WITH AN EXCERPT OF THREE MONTHS FROM HIS DIARY IN 1774 WHILE 
ATTENDING THE FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS, WITH NOTES BY 
J. M. TONER, M. D. 



71 



SOME ACCOUNT OF GEORGE WASHINGTON'S LIBRARY AND 
MANUSCRIPT RECORDS AND THEIR DISPERSION FROM MOUNT 
VERNON, WITH AN EXCERPT OF THREE MONTHS FROM HIS 
DIARY IN 1774 WHILE ATTENDING THE FIRST* CONTINENTAL 
CONGRESS, WITH NOTES 



By J. M. TONER, M. D. 



WASHINGTON'S LIBRARY AND MANUSCRIPT RECORDS. 

It has been suggested to me to furnish for publication in the 
Annual Report of the American Historical Association, as of 
special historical interest, that part of George Washington's 
diary beginning one month prior to the meeting of the Conti- 
nental Congress of 1774, continuing through the sitting of that 
body in Philadelphia, and closing with his return to Mount 
Vernon. 

The suggestion is made on the theory that, as I have already 
obtained literal copies of all the volumes, known to be in ex- 
istence, of the diary of this illustrious character and, with ex- 
planatory notes, have them practically ready for the press, I 
could furnish any required part as an excerpt with but little 
inconvenience or labor and with no detriment to the diary when 
published iu a complete form. In the main this supposition is 
correct. 

Washington's diary and recorded notes upon passing events 
and all his allusions to persons and places at any period, brief 
though they be, are of very high value to all who are interested 
in his life and the history of the Eepublic which he did so much 
to found. 

His diary is measurably continuous, with but few breaks, 
from 1760 to the close of his eventful life. It is true some selec- 
tions from it have been printed in " Washington's Writings," 
by Sparks, also by other editors covering particular periods ; 
but never in a consecutive form which made any pretension 
to completeness. The fact may not be generally known that 

73 



74 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

the diary of George Washington is written on both sides of the 
paper, in a series of small almanacs, having blank leaves bound 
in them, and in pocket memorandum books containing about 
one hundred pages of 3J by 5 inches in size. For some years 
the entries fill several of such books. In time these volumes 
became quite numerous, which, with their small size and want 
of uniformity in shape and binding, added to the danger of 
their loss from accidental displacement, as well as by deliberate 
abstraction. 

At the general's death, all of his papers were left intact and 
in excellent order. Judge Marshall had the use of the archives 
at Mount Vernon in the preparation of his "Life of Washing- 
ton," begun the year of the General's death, and published in 
1804-07 in five volumes, but he makes no mention of the loss 
or absence of any papers. However, from the lax care and the 
want of a due appreciation of the great value of these papers, 
during the long period which elapsed before the historian Jared 
Sparks began a systematic examination of the letters and papers 
in this repository of unique records of Washington's early life 
as well as of his labors during the War of Independence, the 
adoption of the constitution of the United States and the in- 
auguration and administration of the Government under it for 
eight years, the collection had suffered considerable spoliation. 

It is, therefore, difficult to avoid the reflection that Gen. 
Washington's nephew and executor, to whom he left his library 
and papers, with the Mount Vernon mansion and a plantation 
attached of over 4,000 acres, lamentably failed to appreciate, 
in any magnanimous sense, his duty to his uncle's memory or 
the value to history of these precious literary treasures. 

It is known that Judge Bushrod Washington gave some of 
the volumes of the General's diary to his own personal friends 
as memorials and keepsakes, thereby breaking the consecu- 
tiveness of the personal record and proving himself entirely 
oblivious of their historical worth. 

It was the General's delicacy alone, I apprehend, that pre- 
vented his indicating, in detail, definite measures for the pres- 
ervation of his papers; his confident expectation being that 
his nephew, out of common gratitude and with proper compre- 
hension of the value of the collection, would duly devise a plan 
which should preserve them as a foundation toward a national 
repository of original records for the true history of the rise of 
the Bepublic and the donor's own life, as well as for the light 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S LIBRARY TONER. 75 

they alone throw on the efforts and principles of so many other 
worthy actors in that heroic endeavor which founded the 
Kepublic we enjoy. The ample estate which went with 
this collection of papers, he doubtless supposed, would have 
assured its safe keeping intact, at Mount Vernon, for all time 
for the benefit of the people of the United States, without be- 
coming an onerous tax upon his nephew or his heirs. He 
knew the aid these papers would be to historical writers, and 
the gratification they would give statesmen and the friends 
and advocates of free institutions. That such was the hope 
of the " Father of his country," is a natural inference, from 
many casual expressions in his letters and papers as to their 
value and the future service they would be to writers, as well 
as from his uniform habit and ceaseless endeavors from his 
youth to his last hours to preserve all papers connected with 
his journeys, occupations, business transactions and official 
position as General of the Army and President of the Eepub- 
lic, letters received, together with copies of his own letters 
sent, his papers and journals. 

The gift, or devise and trust of Gen. George .Washington's 
books and papers, is in the words following : 

Item To my nephew, Bushrod Washington, I give and bequeath all the 
papers in my possession, which relate to my civil and military administra- 
tion of the affairs of this country. 

I leave to him also such of my private papers as are worth preserving, 
and at the decease of wife and before, if she is not inclined to re- 
tain them, I give and bequeath my library of books and pamphlets of 
every kind. [See Will.] 

The great extent of Washington's written notes and ob- 
servations, surveys, drafts of papers, letters and studies of 
different kinds, is something amazing. In his library these 
were all systematically arranged in order for reference. His 
inquiring mind and his disposition to collect opinioDS, docu- 
ments and books on agriculture, inland navigation and govern- 
ment, and other lines of thought in which he was interested 
have been but inadequately presented by his biographers. 

The great attention he gave to taking and preserving vouchers 
for his personal expenses while in command of the Continental 
Army, and his carefully rendered account to Congress at the 
end of the war of moneys received and disbursed for that 
purpose, is in itself a monument to his fixed principles of ex- 
actness, industry and integrity. The evidence of this may 
still be seen at the Treasury Department in vouchers for per- 



76 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

soual expenses while in the Army, unless the recent spasm for 
economizing space in the Treasury building, which sent tons 
of records to the paper mill, may have included them among 
those as " unimportant and worthless papers," doomed to de- 
struction under an act of Congress. 

It is known that Washington, at an early period of the war 
for Independence, when Governor Dunmore was conducting a 
destructive warfare upon the villages on tide water and plan- 
tations along the Potomac River, where there was no military 
force to oppose him, and when it was apprehended that Mount 
Vernon might be pillaged and destroyed, ordered all his papers 
to be carefully packed and ready for removal to a place of 
safety, should the necessity arise. Washington's estimate of 
the importance of his papers in writing the history of the 
Revolution, as well as that of his own life and employment in 
the public service, is pretty fully stated in his letter to Dr. 
James Craik, March 25, 1784 5 and also to the Rev. John With- 
erspoon, March 8, 1785. 

MOUNT VERNON, 25 th March, 1784. 

DEAR SIR : In answer to M r . Bowie's request to you, permit me to as- 
sure that gentleman, that I shall at all times be glad to see him at this re- 
treat That whenever he is here, I will give him the perusal of any public 
papers antecedent to my appointment to the command of the American 
army that he may be laying up materials for his work. And whenever 
Congress shall have opened their Archives to any Historian for information, 
that he shall have the examination of all others in my possession which 
are subsequent thereto ; but that till this epoch, I do not think myself at 
liberty to unfold papers which contain all the occurrences & transac- 
tions of my late command ; first, because I conceive it to be respectful to 
the sovereign power to let them take the lead in this business & next, 
because I have, upon this principle, refused Doct r . Gordon & others who 
are about to write the History of the Revolution this privilege. 

I will frankly declare to you, my D r . Doctor that any memoirs of my 
life, distinct & unconnected with the general history of the war, would 
rather hurt my feelings than tickle my pride whilst I live. I had rather 
glide gently down the stream of life, leaving it to posterity to think & 
say what they please of me, than by any act of mine to have vanity or os- 
tentation imputed to me And I will furthermore confess that I was rather 
surprised into a consent, when Doct r . Witherspoon (very unexpectedly) 
made the application, than considered the tendency of that consent. It 
did not occur to me at that moment, from the manner in which the ques- 
tion was propounded that no history of my life, without a very great deal 
of trouble indeed, could be written with the least degree of accuracy, un- 
less recourse was had to me, or to my papers for information that it 
would not derive sufficient authenticity without a promulgation of this 
fact & that such a promulgation would subject me to the imputation I 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S LIBRARY TONER. 77 

have just mentioned which would hurt me the more, as I do not think 
vanity is a trait of my character. 

It is for this reason, &. candour obliges me to be explicit, that I shall 
stipulate against the publication of the memoirs M r . Bowie has in contem- 
plation to give the world, 'till I shou'd see more probability of avoiding 
the darts which / think would be pointed at me on such an occasion ; and 
how far, under these circumstances, it would be worth M r . Bowie's while 
to spend time which might be more usefully employed in other matters, 
is with him to consider; as the practicability of doing it efficiently, 
without having free access to the documents of this war, which must fill 
the most important pages of the Memoir, & which for the reasons already 
assigned cannot be admitted at present, also is. If nothing happens more 
than I at present foresee, I shall be in Philadelphia on or before the first of 
May ; where 'tis probable I may see M r . Bowie & converse further with him 
on this subject in the meanwhile I will thank you for communicating 
these Sentiments. 

I am very truly Your Affectionate friend & Serv*, 

Go. WASHINGTON.* 

To D r . JAMES CRAIK. 

MOUNT VERNON, 8 March, 1785. 

REVEREND SIR : From the cursory manner in w ch you expressed the 
wish of M r . Bowie to write the Memoirs of iny life I was not, at the 
moment of your application & my assent to it, struck with the conse- 
quences to which it tended: but when I came to reflect upon the matter 
afterward, & had had some conversation with M r . Bowie on the subject; I 
found that this must be a very futile work (if under any circumstances 
it could be made interesting) unless he could be furnished with the inci- 
dents of my life, either from my papers, or my recollection, and digesting 
the past transactions into some sort of form & order with respect to times 
& circumstances : I knew also that many of the former relative to the 
part I had acted in the war between France & G: Britain from the 
year 1754, until the peace of Paris ; which contained some of the most 
interesting occurrences of my life, were lost; that my memory is too 
treacherous to be relied on to supply this defect ; and, admitting both were 
more perfect, that submitting such a publication to the world whilst I 
continue on the theatre, might be ascribed (however involuntarily I was led 
into it) to vain motives. 

These considerations prompted me to tell M r . Bowie, when I saw him at 
Philad . in May last, that I could have no agency towards the publi- 
cation of any memoirs respecting myself whilst living : but as I had given 
my assent to you (when asked) to have them written, & as he had been 
the first to propose it, he was welcome if he thought his time would not 
be unprofitably spent, to take extracts from such documents as yet re- 
mained in my possession, & to avail himself of any other information I 
could give; provided the publication should be suspended until I had 
quitted the stage of human action. I then intended, as I informed him, to 
have devoted the present expiring winter in arranging all my papers which 
I had left at home, & which I found a mere mass of confusion (occasioned 

* Copied from transcript in Washington's letter-book, Department of State. 



78 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

by frequently shifting them into trunks, & suddenly removing them from 
the reach of the enemy) but however strange it may seem it is never- 
theless true, that what with company; references of old matters with 
which I ought not to be troubled applications for certificates, and copies 
of orders, in addition to the routine of letters which have multiplied 
greatly upon me ; I have not been able to touch a single paper, or transact 
any business of my own, in the way of acco ts . & a during the whole course 
of the winter; or in a word, since my retirement from public life. 

I have two reasons, my good sir, for making these communications to 
you the first is, by way of apology for not complying with my promise 
in the full extent you might expect in favor of M r . Bowie The second 
is, not knowing where that Gentleman resides I am at a loss without your 
assistance, to give him the information respecting the disordered state of 
my papers, which he was told should be arranged, & a proper selection 
of them made for his inspection, by the Spring. Upon your kindness 
therefore I must rely to convey this information to him; for tho' I 
shou'd be glad at all times, to see M r . Bowie here, I should be unhappy if 
expectations which can not be realized (in the present moment) shou'd 
withdraw him from, or cause him to forego some other pursuits which 
may be more advantageous to him. 

My respects if you please to M rs . Witherspoon. 
I have the honor to be, etc., 

Go. WASHINGTON.* 

To the Rev. JOHN WITHERSPOON. 

Immediately after the death of his mother, in writing to 
his sister, Bettie Lewis, he requested her to have "particular 
care taken of [our mother's] papers, the letters to her, etc., 
and to preserve them for him." His solicitude for the pres 
ervation of his letters and papers was exhibited in a marked 
manner but a few hours before his death, in the directions 
he gave Mr. Lear : 

Do you arrange and record all my late military letters and papers ; ar- 
range my accounts and settle my books, as you know more about them 
than anyone else; and let Mr. Rawlins finish recording my other letters 
which he has begun. (Lear's account of Washington's death, in Sparks, 
Vol. I, p. 557.) 

The list of Gen. Washington's books at Mount Vernon, made 
by the appraisers after his death, and to be found in Hon. 
Edward Everett's "Life of Washington," and in the "Home 
of Washington," by Lossing, is meager and, I apprehend, very 
incomplete. It gives less than a thousand titles of books and 
pamphlets, and about 100 charts and maps. As confirmatory 
of this view we need only refer to the many stray volumes 
which may be seen in public and private libraries, and to the 
collection in the Boston Athenaeum, designated as the "Wash* 



: Copied from transcript in Washington's letter-book, Department of State. 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S LIBRARY TONER. 79 

ington Library/' numbering 1,300 titles; and even this collec- 
tion, it is known, represents but a part of the books and 
pamphlets owned by Gen. Washington at the time of his 
death. 

Some account of the dispersion and, as far as practicable, 
the present resting place of the library of books and manu- 
scripts so laboriously gathered and so carefully preserved at 
Mount Vernon by Gen. Washington, may have at least a mel- 
ancholy interest in connection with the diary from which we 
are about to give an excerpt. The following information as to 
the Mount Vernon library and manuscripts has been derived 
from authentic records and other reliable sources. 

The library and manuscript papers of G;en. George Wash- 
ington given to his nephew, Justice Bushrod Washington, one 
of the executors, were kept intact at Mount Vernon until his 
own death in 1829. He, however, permitted the free use of them 
by reputable writers, and under a written contract gave the 
Eev. Jared Sparks leave to take the manuscripts to Boston to 
copy and have them near him, for consultation, while he was 
editing the life and writings of Washington. Many times in 
the discharge of the public business the heads of the Depart- 
ments of the United States Government wished to consult 
these early records, but they were not within their reach. 
Except a few autograph letters, papers and memorandum books 
of the immense mass of manuscript at Mount Vernon given 
by Judge Washington, from the files to Mends, as curiosi- 
ties, the collection was supposed by him to be unimpaired and 
practically in the condition in which it came into his possession 
on the death of his uncle. The Judge in his will devises the 
literary treasures he had received in the following words : 

Thirteenth. All the papers and letter books devised to me by my uncle, 
General George Washington, as well as the books in my study, other than 
law books, I give to iny nephew George C. Washington; the books in the 
cases in the dining room I give to my nephew, John Augustine Washing- 
ton. (See Judge Bushrod Washington's will in "Albert Welles's History of the 
Washington Family," p. 327.) 

George Corbin Washington was a lawyer of ability, the 
son of William Augustine Washington (who married his cousin 
Jane, daughter of John Augustine Washington), and a grand- 
son of Augustine, the father of the General. He was liber- 
ally educated at Cambridge, resided on a fine plantation in 
Montgomery County, Md., and was a Member of Congress for 
three terms. He was for many years president of the Chesa- 



80 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

peake and Ohio Canal Company. He was twice married and 
left one surviving son, Lewis William Washington. 

This most valuable collection of records, family papers and 
books thus passed into the legal possession of the Hon. George 
Corbin Washington ; yet from the fact that the greater and more 
valuable part of them had gone direct to Boston, from Mount 
Vernon, under a contract bearing date January 17, 1827, between 
Justice Bushrod Washington and the Rev. Jared Sparks, and 
were not returned at the time of the Judge's death, nor indeed 
had they been when the Hon. G. C. Washington made sale of 
them to the United States, it is probable that a large portion 
of the Washington papers were, therefore, never in the latter's 
actual possession. 

In the practical administration of the Government under the 
Constitution, and particularly in the adjustment of claims 
brought against the United States and authorized by Congress 
to be equitably settled, the value of these records in reaching 
just conclusions had often presented itself to the heads of 
the several Departments. The desire to possess them was not 
an ebullition of sentiment or patriotism ; it would seem that 
it was almost wholly from a business standpoint, and in con- 
sideration of the use they would be to the National Govern- 
ment. It may not be without interest to present briefly in the 
following compendium some of the steps which led to the ac- 
quirement of the greater portion of these precious papers by 
the Government. 

DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 

December 10, 1833. 
GEORGE C. WASHINGTON, Esquire: 

* SIR : Being desirous of rendering as complete as possible the Archives of 
the United States, and especially those which belong to that most interest- 
ing portion of our history, the struggle for independence, I take the liberty 
to address you on the subject of some official papers and records of Gen- 
eral Washington, which are understood to he in your possession. 

The value of the papers of your illustrious relative, in a public point of 
view, was justly esteemed by him ; and, in a letter addressed to the Presi- 
dent of Congress on the 4th of April, 1781, he informed that body, that it 
had been found impracticable " to register the copies of the letters, Instruc- 
tions, &c., in books, by which means valuable documents, which may be 
of equal public utility and private satisfaction, remain in loose sheets and 
in the rough manner in which they were first drawn" and he suggested 
that writers might be employed to arrange and register them. Congress 
took the same view of the subject, and immediately, on the 10th of April, 
1781, authorized him to employ an additional confidential secretary and as 
many writers as he should judge proper, to arrange and register the public 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S LIBRARY TONER. 81 

letters, and other documents in the office at Head Quarters and assign them 
such salaries as he might see proper. 

The Department of State is in possession of the correspondence between 
the Coinmander-in-Chief and the President of Congress, and a small part 
of that with the General Officers and the Governors of States ; but, whether 
the other letters, instructions, &c., above referred to, were ever placed 
among the archives of the Government, does not appear. 

It is presumed that it may be agreeable to you, as well on the grounds 
of public utility as from a desire to preserve in so safe and so suitable a 
depository, the official papers and records of your eminent kinsman, to 
consent, that any, which may be in your possession of that description, may 
be deposited among the national archives in this Department. 

I will thank you to acquaint me with your views on this subject, and, if 
they should be favorable, to inform me upon what conditions you would 
be willing to enter into such an arrangement. 

I am, Sir* very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Louis McLANE. 

To the foregoing proposition Mr. Washington responded fit- 
tingly and patriotically, giving a brief outline of the character 
and extent of the papers of Gen. Washington which he in- 
herited, and expressing his willingness to part with such of 
them as related to the political history of the country, to the 
end that they might become a part of the records of the 
National Government. 

The following is his answer in full: 

GEORGE TOWN, Jan*. 3 rd , 1834. 
Hon. LEWIS M C LANE, Secy, of State. 

SIR: I have received your letter of the 10 th Dec r ., expressing your de- 
sire "of rendering as complete as possible the Archives of the United 
States, and especially those which belong to that most interesting portion 
of our history, the struggle for independence " which are to be found in 
the official papers and records of Gen 1 . Washington, in my possession. 

You suggest, " that it may be agreeable to me, as well on the grounds 
of public utility, as from a desire to preserve in so safe and so suitable a 
depository, the official papers and records of my eminent kinsman, to con- 
sent, that any which may be in my possession of that description, may be 
deposited among the National Archives" in the State Department, & in 
conclusion, you request me to acquaint you with my views on the subject, 
" and if they should be favorable," to inform you upon what conditions, 
I would be willing to enter into such an arrangement. I have given to the 
subject the consideration which its interest and importance merits, and 
now briefly present to you my views in relation to it. 

The papers devised by Gen 1 . Washington to my late relative, Judge 
Washington & by him to me, comprises an immense mass of information, 
intimately connected with the history of our country from the years 1752 
to 1799. They embrace papers in relation to the French war, Braddock's 
defeat, and other interesting events, prior to the revolution. The papers 
immediately in connection with the revolution are of great interest and 
vast amount. These comprise his correspondence with Congress, the Gov- 
S. Mis. 57 6 



82 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

ernors of the States, the officers of the Army, both American and foreign, 
and in a word, everything connected with his long and arduous duties as 
Commander in chief. The next epoch which they include, is that, in rela- 
tion to the formation of the Government and the adoption of the Constitu- 
tion, and the history of his administration, comprised in 13 Vols. from 
1789 to 1797 & 13 Vols. containing records and transactions between the 
President and Departments from 1789 to 1797 & also the journal of the 
President. 

The original letters received by Gen 1 . Washington from his illustrious 
cotemporaries and others, & his miscellaneous papers, probably amount 
to more than twenty thousand, the larger portion of which are bound, 
and comprise, I think, 121 vols. 

In the above description, I have given you but an imperfect idea of the 
value and magnitude of these papers. 

To part with these relicks of the father of our country exacts no small 
sacrifice of personal feeling, but taught by the example of my venerated 
relative, who never permitted private views and feelings to interpose in the 
performance of what he conceived a public duty, I will consent to their 
being deposited in the Archives of the nation. 

I am further induced to comply with your request, by the consideration, 
that these papers are distinctly National in their Character, illustrative of 
the events of our glorious Revolution, and of the rise and progress of all 
our political institutions, and therefore should be the property of the Na- 
tion. In the hands of an individual, they are also liable to casualties, 
which might in a moment sweep into oblivion this proud monument of 
the moral excellence and intellectual labors of one, whose memory is 
cherished by his countrymen, & whose long life was devoted to their 
service. 

Permit me, Sir, here to add, that it would be a source of proud gratifica- 
tion to me, could I gratuitously present these papers to my country, but 
duties and considerations of a private nature, which it may not become 
me to particularize, forbid the indulgence of my wishes. 

I am willing that the Government shall possess all the papers of a general 
character, or in any manner connected with the Colonial, revolutionary 
& political history of the country, only reserving such, as are of a 
private nature, or which it would be obviously improper to make public. 

To fix a valuation, would be a difficult task, as the intrinsic worth of such 
property, can be estimated by no standard with which I am acquainted 
nor have I any criterion by which to be governed, further, than the esti- 
mation which public sentiment has attached to it, together with the 
opinion often expressed to me by Judge Washington, who conceived that 
the legacy was of great pecuniary as well as moral value, as furnishing 
important materials for future publication (exclusive of the compilation 
now in progress by M r . Sparks). The manuscripts bound, I think amount 
to 201 Vols., and I believe I am within bounds in saying, that if all these 
papers were printed they would make from fifty to one hundred vols. 

I have reason to believe, that a liberal sum would be cheerfully given 
by citizens of one State of the Union, with the view of placing these 
papers in a public institution and safe depository but it would be more 
grateful to my feelings that they should belong to the whole Nation than 
to any particular section. 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S LIBRARY TONER. 83 

M r . Sparks, who is favorably known to the public as an able writer, is 
engaged in publishing a compilation from these voluminous papers, which 
I understand is now in the press, & is looked for with intense interest 
by the people. The papers are in his keeping at this time, in a fine state 
of arrangement and preservation, and safe from accidents by being de- 
posited in a fire-proof vault. They are also insured to a large amount. 

I cannot name a specific sum, as an equivalent, but confiding in the 
liberality of the Government, I am willing to enter into such an arrange- 
ment as may be mutually satisfactory, in which event, I will transfer 
forthwith to the Government my title to the papers (with the reservation 
before mentioned) to be delivered as soon as practicable, after the publi- 
cation above alluded to. 

In consequence of suggestions which have been made on the subject, I 
will here state, that I have in my possession, that portion of Gen 1 . Washing- 
ton's library, relating to the public records of the country, from the journals 
of the Continental Congress to the close of his administration, including 
State papers, etc. I believe the series to be complete, and should it be 
deemed important to have them added to the library, either of Congress or of 
the State Department, I am willing that the Government shall have them 
for such reasonable equivalent as may be decided on. 

I have the honor to be, Very Respectfully, Y r . Ob*. Serv*., 

G. C. WASHINGTON. 

The letter of the Hon. Mr. Washington was so encouraging as 
to induce the Secretary of State to have a bill introduced into 
Congress for the purchase of the Washington papers. The bill 
was referred to the Committee on Foreign Affairs to inquire 
into the expediency of purchasing the library and official and 
private papers of Gen. Washington, to be deposited in the De- 
partment of State. 

The State Department furnished to the Committee such infor- 
mation as it could procure of the extent and character of the col- 
lection, which, it was found, would add much to the completeness 
of the records of the Government, as was well known to the of- 
cials and clerks who were acquainted with the deficiencies and 
needs of the office, as well as by historians, who had examined 
the papers. 

April 1, 1834, Mr. Archer, from the Committee of the House, 
made a favorable report, No. 381, from which we quote : 

From the answer of the proprietor, Mr. George C. Washington, sent to 
the committee, it appeared that, as well on grounds of public utility as 
from a desire for the safe and suitable preservation of these documents, he 
was willing to transfer them in property to the United States, for such 
equivalent as might be deemed reasonable by this Government. 

From evidence annexed it appears that the papers in question comprise 
an immense mass of information intimately connected with the history of 
our country, from the year of 1752 to 1799. They embrace papers in rela- 
tion to the French war, Braddock's defeat, and other interesting events 
prior to the Revolution. 



84 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

The papers immediately in connection with the Revolution are of great 
interest and vast moment. These comprise the correspondence of George 
Washington with Congress, the Governors of the States, the Officers of the 
army, both American and foreign, and, in a word, everything connected 
with his long and arduous duties as Commander-in-chief. 

The next epoch which they include is that in relation to the formation 
of the Government, and the adoption of the Constitution, and the history 
of his administration, comprised in thirteen volumes ; and thirteen volumes 
containing records and transactions between the President and the Depart- 
ments from 1789 to 1797; and also the journal of the President. 

The original letters received by General Washington from his illustrious 
contemporaries, and the miscellaneous papers, probably amounting to more 
than twenty thousand, the larger portion of which are bound, and com- 
prise one hundred and twenty-one volumes. 

Such is the general description given by the proprietor, confirmed by a 
corresponding statement from the gentleman who has, for some time, had 
the custody of these papers for the purpose of consulting them,' and who 
is better enabled than any other person to give a just account of their char- 
acter and probable value. 

As regards the desirableness of the acquisition on the part of the Gov- 
ernment, the Committee can have no hesitation in expressing an affirma- 
tive opinion. 

As regards the price to be affixed to the papers, the committee have ap- 
prehended difficulty, a part of the considerations affecting their value not 
being appreciable in money. From this they have been relieved, however, 
by learning the estimate put on them as objects of mercantile speculation. 
They have been led, from several sources of information, to believe that the 
proprietor would have little difficulty in obtaining the price which he lias 
consented to receive from the public, from a preference that they should 
belong to the nation. 

The committee would further remark that nearly the same price was 
paid for the library of Mr. Jefferson, merely, without his papers, which it 
is now proposed to give for all the autograph and other papers of General 
Washington, not purely of a private nature, or which it would be improper 
to make public, together with a portion of his library. 

In pursuance of the views they have expressed, they report an amend- 
ment to the general appropriation bill, to be offered when this bill shall 
be taken up. 

Appended to the report of the Committee is the following 
comprehensive description of the collection and an explicit 
letter on the subject from the historian Jared Sparks to the 
Hon. Edward Everett, as to the extent and value of the Wash- 
ington papers, which we copy : 

CAMBRIDGE, March 3, 1834. 

DEAR SIR : I have received your letter of the 22d ultimo, asking such 
information as I can furnish respecting the amount and character of the 
manuscript papers left by General Washington and my opinion as to the 
sum which Congress may reasonably pay for them. 

The amount of the papers may be understood from the following sum- 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S LIBRARY TONER. 85 

1. Public and private letters, and other papers before the Revolution, 
embracing his official correspondence during the French war, seven folio 
volumes. 

2. His entire correspondence, official and private, from the beginning 
to the end of the Revolution, including other original military papers of 
great value, recorded in thirty-seven volumes; also, the first draughts of 
the above papers on file, being the identical papers which were retained 
and consulted by General Washington in the Army. It thus appears that 
there are two copies of all his letters written during the Revolution. The 
recorded copy was made near the end of the war. There are also six vol- 
umes of orderly books. 

3. Letters and miscellaneous papers, public and private, after the Revo- 
lution and coming down to the end of his life, thirty-six volumes. Among 
them are two records of his intercourse with the different Departments 
while he was President, and many important cabinet papers. 

The above are General Washington's own letters or papers. There are 
besides : 

4. The original letters received by General Washington, and numerous 
original papers on public affairs, military, civil and miscellaneous, chrono- 
logically arranged in a continuous series, amounting to one hundred and 
seventeen large volumes. 

5. A few miscellaneous papers on file. 

Hence the whole collection consists of two hundred and three volumes, 
besides the copy of the Revolutionary correspondence on file. The papers 
are, throughout, methodically arranged, well preserved and strongly 
bound. 

As to their value in a pecuniary sense, or the sum which Congress may 
reasonably pay for them, it is a question not easy to answer ; but I have 
no objection to expressing my opinion. When I took them into my hands I 
would have given for them, as literary property, $20,000. The use I am 
making of them in selecting parts for publication will diminish the value, 
but still, if the purchase of them is deemed a national object, I should 
think $20,000 the lowest price that ought to be affixed for them. 

As a historical treasure to the nation, they are altogether invaluable. 
I have examined all the public offices in the country containing papers 
relating to Revolutionary events, and I do not hesitate to say that these 
manuscripts comprise a mass of materials for the history of that period 
more authentic, rich and important than can be obtained from all the 
public sources combined. 

It would be easy to go into detail and set forth the grounds of my opin- 
ion, but this would, perhaps, be gratuitous; I will only add that my im- 
pressions have been derived from a very close examination of the subject, 
and they have constantly grown stronger as I have advanced. 

I forward to you a pamphlet containing two letters, which you will prob- 
ably remember to have seen before, but which will revive some particu- 
lars respecting the object of your inquiry. 

I am, dear sir, with sincere regards, your friend and most obedient serv- 
ant, 

JARED SPARKS. 

Hon. EDWARD EVERETT. 



86 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

The followiDg is a memorandum of the books and papers 
furnished by Mr. Washington to the Secretary of State, and 
is preserved in that office. A similar list had also been fur- 
nished to the Committee on Foreign Kelations, which, with 
Mr. Sparks's letter, led to the adoption of the report by the 
Committee recommending the purchase. 

Papers in my office in George Town to be delivered at the State Dept. 

5 orderly books taken from the British in the Revolutionary war. 

12 books and pamphlets, being orderly books, warrant, regimental, re- 
cruiting, deserters, list of officers discharged, dates of commissions, 
&c., &c., Revolutionary Army. 

1 returns of ordnance and military stores. 

2 manuscript journals of the Congress of 1775. 
2 inspection rolls of negroes. 

4 relating to the French war. 

6 bundles of addresses, resolutions, and answers on his retiring from the 

Army, as Prest., and on the proclamation of 1793, with the answers. 

1 bundle of papers, containing letters from John Hancock, from the com- 
mander of the British forces, and governors of the States. 

1 do. original letters from Congress and the Board of War. 

1 do. original letters to Genl. Arnold, probably found among his papers at 
West Point. 

1 do miscellaneous papers. 

1 do. do. do. military. 

1 do. do. do. do. 

1 do. do. do. do. 

1 do. papers relating to the Cincinnati. 

1 do. list of draughts and other papers respecting the militia. 

1 bundle military. 

2 do. do. 

1 do. returns of clothing, 1777, 1778, 1780. 

1 do. military miscellaneous. 

19 bundles returns of officers and men, agreeable to general orders of Sep- 
tember, 1778. 

A few loose papers. 

1 do. miscellaneous. 

Ido. papers of 1756. 

1 do. company pay rolls, with receipts, etc. 

1 paper, being a "List of Gen'l and Field Officers of the Virginia Line in 
the late (Revolutionary) Army of the United States, who continued 
in service to the end of the war, or were deranged in pursuance of 
acts of Congress." 

1 bundle report of guards, 21 Augt. 1780. 

1 do. additional corps resignations, 30th April, 1780. 

1 do. return of military stores, 1781, 1783. 

1 do. Genl. returns for Augt., 1778. 

1 do. return of provisions Northern Department. B 

1 do. hospital returns. 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S LIBRARY TONER. 87 

1 bundle inspection returns, issues, etc., 1777, 1780. 

1 do. inspection returns, 1779, 1780. 

1 do. do. do. do. do. 

1 do. list of deserters. 

1 do. arrangements and appointments 1775 and 1776. 

1 do. Quartennaster-Genl. returns, 1779. 

1 do. Pennsylvania resignations, 1777, 1778 to 1781. 

1 do. indentures. 

1 do. commissaries and quartermasters' returns, 1780. 

3 do. Virginia resignations (large bundles) 1777, 1778, 1779. 

1 do. oaths of abjuration and allegiance of the officers of the Army 

(large bundle) 1778. 

1 do. Maryland line resignations, 1779, 1780. 
1 do. cavalry resignations, 1777, 1778 to 1780. 
1 bundle sappers and miners' resignations, 1781, 1782. 
1 do. New Hampshire resignations, 1777 and 1778. 
1 do. promotions. 

1 do. artillery resignations, 1777, 1778 to 1782. 
1 do. Connecticut resignations, 1777, 1778. 
1 do. resignations North Carolina officers, 1777, '78 and '79. 
1 do. Connecticut line resignations, 1779 to 1783. 
1 do. bills and receipts, 1778, '79 to 1780. 

1 do. do. do. of his Excell'ys family expenses, 1776, 1777. 

1 do. returns of the Gen'l Hospital, 1775. 
1 do. returns of military stores, 1779. 

1 do. Gen'l returns of issues of provisions, &c., Middle Dep't, 1777, 1780. 
1 do. selection and arrangement of officers. 
1 bundle resignations of Rhode Island regiments, 1777, '78 to 1782. 
1 do. Massachusetts resignations, 1780. 
1 do. New Jersey resignations, 1777, '78 to 1783. 
1 do. Massachusetts resignations, 1777, '80 to 1779. 
1 do. resignations and discharges, 1782. 
1 do. Massachusetts resignations, 1781 to 1783. 
Letter of Fick, late professor at Esslingen. 
1 do. French poetry in honor of Gen'l Washington. 
1 bundle letters to Commissioners of Washington City and other persons 

(recorded in Vol. ix), 1797. 
1 bundle letters of Gen'l Washington's on various subjects recorded in 

Vol. xii. 

10 Vols. Army returns. 

13 Vols. Journals of Congress from 1774 to 1788. 
Journals of Congress. 
[Endorsement.] Papers in the office of Geo. C. Washington. 

Upon a presentation of these facts by the Secretary of State 
to the legislative branch of the Government, an act of Con- 
gress was passed and approved June 30, 1834, appropriating 
$25,000 "to enable the Secretary to purchase^the manuscript 
papers and a portion of the printed books of Gen. George 
Washington, the said papers and books to be deposited and 



88 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

preserved in the Department of State under the regulations 
the Secretary shall prescribe." 

Before the act became a law, an understanding had been 
reached between the Hon. George C. Washington and the then 
Secretary of State, John Forsythe, as to the amount of money 
to be paid for the manuscript papers and books of Gen. Wash- 
ington, and the manner of their delivery to the Government. 

The following letter, from Mr. Sparks to the Hon. G. C. 
Washington, concerning the classification of the public and 
private manuscript books and diary of Gen. Washington, is 
especially interesting : 

CAMBRIDGE, Feb'y 23, 1835. 

DEAR SIR : When I took the papers from Mount Vernon, some of the 
numbers of General Washington's diary, or journal were missing. Judge 
Washington told me afterwards, that he had found them, and would send 
them to me ; but they never came. They are small, thin, manuscript books. 
If you find them among the private papers left with you, I shall be much 
obliged if you will send them to me, as they are essential in writing the 
life of Genl. Washington. They will go back to you among the private 
papers. Will you have the goodness to put them into the hands of Mr. 
Everett, who will bring them safely! I hope you will have the goodness 
to embrace this opportunity, as another so good a one may not soon occur. 
When I send the papers back, do you wish me to direct them all to the 
Department of State, or shall I put the private papers up separately and 
direct them to you? I think you told me that you had reserved the pri- 
vate papers, and I should like your instructions. 
Respectfully & truly yours, 

JARED SPARKS. 
Hon. GEO. C. WASHINGTON, 

Georgetown, D. C. 

As might have been expected, the question of selection and 
determination as to what constituted private, and what public 
papers, arose after their delivery and examination in the De- 
partment of State. Some deficiencies were discovered, though 
the delivery seems to have corresponded with the schedule. 
When these facts were reported by the examiners, it led to 
a further correspondence between the Department of State 
and the Hon. G. O. Washington, with the result of adding a 
very few papers to the original deposit, but leaving a regret 
with the Department that the whole of the Washington papers 
of every character had not been provided for in the purchase. 
The evident tenor of the will of the general, as well as that 
of his nephew, Justice Bushrod Washington, was to preserve 
intact and convey all the papers collected and preserved at 
Mount Vernon as an entirety. Under these two wills, the col- 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S LIBRARY TONER. 89 

lection of manuscripts was presumed to have reached Hon. 
George Oorbin Washington intact, and that he made sale of 
them to the Government with the single reservation already 
stated. Mr. Washington defended his classification of the re- 
served papers and quoted in justification the limiting clause 
in his letter to the Secretary of January 3, 1834. 

To bind the parties, a contract was entered into between 
John Forsyth, Secretary of State, and the Hon. George C. 
Washington, on August 22, 1834, for the sale by the latter of 
all the Washington papers described in the clause of his let- 
ter of January 3, 1834. The part of the contract describing 
these papers and their extent is in the following language : 

The said George C. Washington agrees to sell and deliver to the said 
Secretary of State, for the use of the United States, all the papers of the 
late General George Washington of which he, the said George C. Wash- 
ington, is proprietor, including those mentioned in the lists of inventories 
furnished from time to time to the Department of State as being in his 
own possession, and those which are in the possession of any other person 
or persons, more especially those which are in the hands of the Reverend 
Jared Sparks ; together with the printed books referred to in a letter ad- 
dressed by the said George C. Washington to the Secretary of State on the 
third day of January eighteen hundred and thirty-four : The whole of 
the said papers and books to be delivered forthwith at the Department of 
State at the expense of the said George C. Washington except those in the 
possession of the said Jared Sparks, which shall be delivered without de- 
lay to the order of the Secretary of State, who agrees to permit them 
to remain in the city of Boston or in the neighborhood thereof until the 
close of the next session of Congress. 

(Document signed by) JOHN FORSYTH. 

G. C. WASHINGTON. 

Witnessed by 

H. O. DAYTON. 

Hon. JOHN FORSYTH, Secy, of State. 

SIR : I have completed the examination and arrangement of the loose 
files of the Washington papers in the Department, and have delivered to 
Mr. Blake thirty-seven volumes, to be bound as you directed. 

The papers .have been classed and arranged so as to conform as nearly as 
possible to the various subjects they embrace, keeping each class distinct 
and generally in chronological order. They consist of 

1. Arrangements of officers, &c., by States in 8 volumes. 

2. Resignations of officers, by States 7 " 

3. Oaths of allegiance 2 " 

4. Regimental returns 3 '* 

5. Brigade returns, &c 1 " 

6. Reports of guards 1 " 

7. Inspection returns 1 " 

8. Q, M. generals returns 1 " 



90 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

9. Clothing returns 1 volume. 

10. Provision returns 4 " 

11. Returns of military stores 4 " 

12. Pay and hospital returns 1 " 

13. Special returns, &c., on various subjects 3 " 

There are, besides, a number of letters to Gen. Washington, from the 

Presidents of Congress, and Various public officers, that probably belong 
to the bound volumes in the possession of Mr. Sparks ; these have been 
laid aside to be put in their proper places, when the books are delivered to 
the Department. 

There are. also, several bundles of papers that relate to the present 
Government : they have not been put up with those of the Revolution, but, 
if you should so decide, can easily be added to them. 
I have the honour to be, very respectfully, &c. 

PETER FORCE. 

WASHINGTON, September 23, 1834. 

As the memory of Jared Sparks must forever be associated 
with his labors on the writings of Washington, the following 
letter from him to the Hon. George C.Washington, must prove 
of interest. It refers to the unfortunate permission granted 
by Justice Bushrod Washington to the Eev. William Buel 
Sprague, to take original letters of Washington's from the files 
at Mount Vernon, x>rovided he would leave copies of them in 
their stead. In 181 fi, Mr. Sprague was a private tutor in the 
family of Maj. Lawrence Lewis, who had married Nellie Custis, 
and resided at Wood Lawn, an estate given him by Gen. Wash- 
ington. The number of letters so taken is stated to have been 
1,500. (See Winsor's Narrative and Critical History of Amer- 
ica, Vol. viiiy p. 417. 

CAMBRIDGE, September 20, 1836. 

DEAR SIR : Some time after the Washington papers came into my hands, 
the Revd. Dr. Sprague, of Albany, obtained permission to select certain 
autographs, on condition that he should leave a fair copy of each paper he 
took. These copies are bound in the volumes according to their dates. 

I mention this circumstance that in case any remarks should be made 
about the copies, it need not be thought that I have taken any improper 
liberties with the papers. The autographs were, of course, taken by Dr. 
Spragne before the papers were purchased by Congress ; nor is it known 
to me that any were taken without leaving copies. The permission was 
granted to Dr. Sprague by Judge Washington. 
J am, sir, respectfully and truly yours. 

JARED SPARKS. 
Col. WASHINGTON. 

The Department of State expected that by this purchase the 
Government would come into possession of all of General 
Washington's papers with the exception of those of a purely 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S LIBRARY TONER. 91 

personal and private character. This reservation, up to the 
delivery and examination of the papers, had seemed to the offi- 
cials to be of little consequence. The letter of the historian, 
Jared Sparks, to Mr. Washington of February 23,1835, already 
given on the subject of the diary makes it evident that he too 
looked upon these volumes of the diary as coming within the 
class of private papers, and fully justifying the classification 
of reserved papers made by Mr. Washington. 

GEORGE TOWN, Dec. 24th, 1838. 
Hon. JOHN FORSYTH : 

SIR : I owe an apology for not sooner answering your letter, in relation 
to the papers purchased of me by the Government. Absence from the Dis- 
trict during part of the time and a great pressure of engagements and 
duties when in it, have operated to prevent me from sooner replying. I 
have been desirous strictly to comply with the understanding between the 
Secretary of State, Congress and myself & with the conditions, on which 
I consented, that the papers of Gen 1 . Washington should be deposited in the 
archives of the Nation. 

In compliance, I have delivered all the papers which were in the hands of 
Judge Washington at his death, or which had been placed by him in charge 
of M r . Sparks, with the exception of some papers of a private character, 
which were expressly reserved. Some autographs were taken by permis- 
sion of Judge Washington & copies substituted, as you will perceive by 
the enclosed copy of a letter to me from M r . Sparks. This occurred before 
I had any control of the papers, but as I understand, they were of but 
little importance, their value consisting in being in the hand-writing of 
Gen 1 . Washington. 

I beg leave to refer you to the correspondence between M r . M c Lane and 
myself on file in the State Department. On the 10th of Dec r , 1833, he ad- 
dressed to me a letter, desiring to be informed if 1 would consent to dis- 
pose of Gen 1 . Washington's papers to the Government and wishing to 
know my terms. I replied on the 3rd of Jan? following and invite your 
attention to an extract from that letter "I am willing that the Govern- 
ment shall possess all the papers of a general character or in any manner 
connected with the Colonial, revolutionary and political history of the 
Country, only reserving such as are of a private nature, or which it would 
be obviously improper to make public." And again " I cannot name a 
specific sum, as an equivalent, but, confiding in the liberality of the Gov- 
ernment, I am willing to enter into such arrangement as may be mutually 
satisfactory; in which event, I will transfer forthwith to the Government 
my title to the papers, with the reservation before mentioned; to be de- 
livered as soon as practicable after the publication above alluded to 
(Spark's). 

This correspondence was referred to the Committee of Foreign Relations 
of the House of Reps., which reported the bill as passed by Congress 
without requiring any modification of my terms. 

The whole amount of papers retained by me under the reservation re- 
ferred to, are contained in a small drawer, and are strictly private, being 



92 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

principally letters to members of the family, or to persons on business ; 
and I find by the endorsement, that even a majority of them are recorded 
in the letter booKS, handed over to the Department & those which are 
bound do not relate to his public life. 

I will now notice the papers stated to be missing, in the order presented 
by the memorandum, accompanying your letter. 

No. 1. Vol. in, Orderly Book. This volume is noticed in M r . Sparks's 
rec 1 . to Judge Washington as missing & it is supposed never came into 
his possession. 

No. 2. Two vols. lettered " Miscellaneous " being private papers, <fc 
having no connexion with his public life. 

No. 3. Diary of Washington are records of daily and private transac- 
tions, kept in almanacks, of the same character is the diary of a journey 
over the Mountains in 1770. 

No. 4. Two books of invoices & letters on business with his agents in 
London, prior to the Revolution. 

No. 5. I am informed by M r . Weaver and Col. Force, that most of the 
papers under this item of your memorandum, stated to be missing, have 
been found and are in the Department. If any of a public character are 
deficient they must have been lost before they came into the possession of 
Judge Washington or during his life time, as all such papers found by me 
at Mount Vernon, or returned by M r . Sparks have been delivered by me 
to the Government. 

No. 6. I have no knowledge of any original letters or other papers hav- 
ing been taken from the bound Volumes, other than as accounted for by 
M r . Sparks in his letter to me on the subject, a copy of which is enclosed, 
with the exception of the correspondence between Gen 1 . Washington and 
John Nicholas, in relation to an anonymous letter addressed to the 
former over the signature of John Langhorne. As this correspondence 
deeply implicates the conduct of a distinguished individual of that day in 
the transaction, I deem it advisable, to withhold it from the public, as no 
possible good could result from its exhibition. By reference to my letter 
to M r . M c Lane of the 3d Jany., 1834, you will observe, that I reserved the 
right of retaining such papers, as "it would be obviously improper to 
make public." The correspondence between Gen 1 . Washington and M r . 
Nicholas, I considered as of that character, nor was I then aware that M r . 
Sparks had published any portion of it I find, however, that he has not 
published the entire correspondence, some of the letters suppressed, being 
of the parcel retained by me. I still entertain doubts as to the propriety 
of placing them iu the Department, but on the fullest reflection have con- 
cluded, to submit them to your inspection, to be retained or returned to 
me as you may deem most proper. They now accompany this communi-- 
cation. 

M r . Sparks, it is true, collated largely from the private as well as public 
papers of Gen 1 . Washington & this ho had a perfect right to do, under 
his contract with Judge Washington, but I do not conceive that his giv- 
ing publicity to them can in any manner affect my right in the few private 
papers retained by me, which it would not have become me to part with 
for any pecuniary consideration, & were therefore expressly reserved. 

The amount paid by the Government for the immense mass of papers de- 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S LIBRARY TONER. 93 

posited in the State Department, was far short of their value, & the pur- 
chase money has already been more than reimbursed, by the evidences 
these papers have afforded, by which many fraudulent claims for large 
amounts on the Government, have been defeated. I have the Copy of a letter 
from M r . Dickens to M r . Archer of the H. of R 8 ., dated 4th June, 1834, stat- 
ing that even at that day & before access was had to the papers in M r . 
Sparks's hands, the evidence afforded by the Washington papers in my pos- 
session had, in one instance, saved to the Government the sum of $9,618, 
and in another case a much larger amount. 

I am, very respectfully, Your Ob fc . Serv*., 

G e . WASHINGTON. 

As time elapsed, a more accurate knowledge of the deficien- 
cies of the Government Records and the importance of the 
papers reserved by Mr. George C. Washington, in the sale of 
Gen. George Washington's papers to the United States in 
1834, led the Department of State in 1849 to make proposals to 
buy the remaining papers, with the approval of Mr. Washing- 
ton. A clause was, therefore, at the instance of the Secretary 
of State, inserted in the general appropriation bill, which was 
approved March 3, 1849, as follows : 

And be it further enacted, That the sum of twenty thousand dollars be, 
and the same is, hereby appropriated, to be paid out of any monies in the 
Treasury, not otherwise appropriated, to enable the Secretary of State to 
purchase the remaining manuscript, books and papers of General George 
Washington, the said books and papers to be deposited and preserved 
in the Department of State. 

The following is the schedule of the papers, and a certificate 
that they were delivered to the Department, and that they 
agreed with the contract, and also an extract from the article 
of agreement, on the part of Mr. George 0. Washington, to sell 
and convey the papers indicated to the Government. 

Schedule of the papers of General Washington in the possession of Geo. C. 

Washington. 

1st vol. Miscellaneous containing transcripts in his handwriting at 
from 10 to 13 years of age, of various legal instruments and forms, 20 pages. 
Rules of good behaviour at same age, 20 pages. His cyphering book at 13 
years old, 178 pages. 

List of polls at various elections when he was a candidate for the house 
of Burgesses of Virginia, 130 pages. 

Also act. of expense*, crops made, correspondence, list of his lands, 
affairs of Truro parish, being a member and vestryman of that church for 
many years. 

2d vol. Miscellaneous containing notes and observations by General 
Washington, together with a large and curious collection of matter relat- 
ing to various subjects. This vol. contains 520 pages. 



94 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

3d vol. Correspondence, invoices, find in his handwriting, from Oct., 
1754, to Sept., 1766. 376 pages. 

4th vol. Correspondence, invoices, &c., &c., principally in his hand 
writing, from 1766 to 1775, 257 pages. 

5th vol. Ledger of General Washington, with index embracing 22 years, 
from 1750 to 1772, 378 pages. 

Diary of General Washington, in 14 books, commencing with the year 
1760 and closing in June 19, 1775. 

The diary for several years is headed, " When, how, and with whom my 
time is spent." The first diary previous to the revolution closes the 19th 
June, 1775, when he took command of the Revolutionary army. Two pre- 
vious to this date are missing for the years 1762-67. 

The diary recommences after the war on the 1st of Jan., 1785, and of 
these there are 12 books and complete to 1787. If these diaries were regu- 
larly continued after 1788 thej did not come into the possession of G. C. 
Washington, who, in addition to the above, has the diary commencing 10th 
Feb., 1799, and closing the 13th Dec. of the same year. This diary u 
endorsed by the late Judge Washington as follows : li This paper probably 
contains the last words that General Washington committed to writing 
on the night of the 13th (Dec., 1799) he was attacked by the disease of 
which he died." 2 books of field notes and surveys made by himself, be- 
tween the ages of 17 and 19, for various persons. Books of his expenses 
while at convention for forming the Constitution in 1787. 1 book, journal 
of his tour over the mountains in 1747, youthful letters, memorandums, &c. 
Journal of General Washington to the South in 1791. Cash memorandum 
books, 8 manuscripts, in his hand, of extracts and observations from works 
on agriculture, &c. 1 book of precedents, adapted to the laws and con- 
stitution of Virginia, with several legal forms in his handwriting when a 
youth. 2 journals in 1781. 1 journal of a journey over the mountains in 
1784. 1 book of experiments and observations. 1 journal of his voyage 
to Barbadoes in 1751 (a fragment). Diplomas and Honorary distinctions 
conferred on him by American and foreign Literary Institutions and So- 
cieties. 

An interesting letter book in 1755, relating to Braddock's campaign, &c. 

Autograph letters from General Washington on war subjects. 

Autograph letters to General Washington. 

This schedule is endorsed by Lund Washington, jun., after an examina- 
tion of the papers and books, and comparing them with the list and find- 
ing them correct and agreeing, March 13th, 1849. 

Now be it known that I George C. Washington, for and in consideration 
of the premises, and the said same twenty thousand Dollars to me in hand 
paid by the United States, the receipt of which is hereby acknowledged, 
have bargained, sold and delivered, and do bargain, sell and deliver to 
the United States of America, all the said manuscript books and papers of 
the said General George Washington of which I am in my own right, solely 
possessed, together with all right, copyright, title, and interest to and in 
the same. To have and to hold all the said remaining manuscripts, books 
and papers to the said United States and to their own use and behalf for- 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S LIBRARY TONER. 95 

ever. In witness whereof, I have hereunto affixed my hand and seal this 
13th day of March, 1849. 

G. C. WASHINGTON. 
In presence of 

LUND WASHINGTON, Jr. 
WM. C. ZANTZINGER. 

In addition to the books and papers which were inherited 
by the Hon. G. 0. Washington from his uncle, Justice Bush- 
rod Washington, it will be observed that there existed a con- 
siderable number of books at Mount Vernon, which the last 
named left by the thirteenth item in his will to his nephew, 
John Augustine Washington, to whom he also left the Mount 
Vernon mansion and plantation, in the words following : "The 
books in the cases in the dining-room, I give to my nephew 
John A. Washington." (See will of Bushrod Washington.) 

This collection, or rather a part of it, was sold in 1849. 
W. F. Poole, now the librarian of the Newberry Library in 
Chicago, in referring, in 1872, to this purchase in a paper on 
''Anti-slavery opinion before the year 1800," states it "had 
about twelve hundred titles; of which, four hundred and 
fifty are bound volumes and seven hundred and fifty are 
pamphlets and unbound serials." This collection was sold to Mr. 
Henry Stevens, of London, who at one time designed placing 
them in the British Museum. They were brought to New York 
for shipment and a more careful packing than they had received 
at Mount Vernon. While in New York they attracted the at- 
tention of some public-spirited gentlemen of Boston, who 
bought the collection and presented them to the "Boston 
Athenaeum" where they are kept intact in cases designated 
" The Library of George Washington." Mr. Poole further says 
that Mr. Livermore, as discretionary executor of the estate of 
Thomas Dowse, the " literary leather-dresser," of Cambridge, 
added to the gift $1,000 for the purpose of printing a descrip- 
tive catalogue of the collection, which we infer has not yet 
been done, for Mr. C. A. Cutter, the librarian of the Athenaeum, 
wrote me in January, 1893: "This library has never published 
any separate catalogue of the Washington collection." 

A sale of indubitable Washington manuscript and other 
relics, descending through heirs by will was made to the State 
of New York. These have the following history and line of 
regular devise. 

The Hon. George C. Washington, already referred to, in 
making his own will left all his real estate and personal prop- 



96 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

erty to his wife, saving and excepting his papers which he left 
to his son and only living child, Lewis William Washington, 
in the following words : 

Item I give to ray son Lewis W. Washington all my papers, other than 
those relating to my private business, which I desire my said wife to retain. 
I also give to ray son, Lewis W. Washington the sword of Gen'l George 
Washington, devised to me by my father, and also the sword and pistol 
(one [of] them being lost) of the said Gen'l Washington, devised to me by 
my uncle, Justice Bushrod Washington. Item I give to my son Lewis 
my law books, public documents, and such other portion of my library as 
my wife may not wish to retain. Item To my grandson James (Barroll) 
I give my watch and the gold chain and seal which belonged to and were 
used by General George Washington. (See will of G. C. Washington on 
record at Eockville, Montgomery County, Maryland.) 

Col. Lewis William Washington, who inherited these private 
papers from his father, George C. Washington, resided on a 
beautiful plantation, " Belle Air, n at Halltown, near Harper's 
Ferry, Jefferson County, W. Va. He was born in 1812, was 
married twice, and died October 1, 1871. By his first wife, he 
had one son and two daughters; and by the last, one surviving 
child, a son. 

Negotiations for the sale to the State of New York of some 
papers and memorial relics of Gen. George Washington 
which came to Col. Lewis William Washington from his father 
George Corbin, who inherited them from Justice Bushrod 
Washington as already detailed were begun with the officials 
of the State of New York and an appropriation for their pur- 
chase passed by the legislature of that State April 20, 1871, in 
an act called the " supply bill " in the following terms: 

To Mrs. Lewis W. Washington, of Halltown, West Virginia, the sum of 
twenty thousand dollars, or so much thereof as may be necessary for the 
purchase of certain relics of General Washington, offered by her to the 
State, to be paid only upon the certificate of Martin Grover and the Chan- 
cellor of the University and J. Carson Brevoort, that said relics are in their 
opinion genuine, and that it is desirable in their judgment that they 
should be placed in the museum of the State Library. 

The articles are numbered and listed as follows, in the An- 
nual report of the New York State Library for the year 1873 : 

1. First draft of the Farewell address, May, 1796. 

2. Opinions of the surviving Generals of the Revolution, 1791. 

3. Tabulated statement of household expenses, 1789. 

4. Dress sword of Washington. 

5. Pistol, a present from Gen. Lafayette. 

6. Gold watch-chain and two seals. 

7. Box of surveying instrument*. 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S LIBRARY TONER. 97 

8. Case of pocket protracting instruments. 

9. Compass made by D. Rittenhouse, Philadelphia. 

10. Tripod, called in the original list, Jacob's staff. 

11. Measuring chain small. 

12. Measuring chain large. 

13. Six marking pins (surveyor's). 

14. Volume of costumes of British army, 1742. 

The last notable sale of books, which once had formed a part 
of the library of Gen. Washington at Mount Yernon, and which 
passed by the wills of the General and also of Justice Washing- 
ton to John Augustine, was a considerable lot, which had not 
been offered or sold to Mr. Henry Stevens in 1849. 

The war between the States left most of the previously 
well-to-do Southern people in very straitened pecuniary 
circumstances, which caused them to part with many highly- 
prized family relics. Such was the case with the heirs of the 
second John Augustine Washington, who still owned some of 
the books belonging to the original Mount Yernon collection, 
and which had been reserved from all former sales. Those 
were now collected together and sent to Philadelphia during 
the Centennial Exposition of 1876, and were there catalogued 
and sold as a part of Gen. Washington's library. Many of 
the books had the General's autograph in them. While the 
books attracted much attention, they brought lower prices 
than the same books would command at the present day. 

While it is true that there have been other sales than those 
here referred to, at which genuine literary remains and other 
memorials of Gen. Washington have been disposed of, yet 
few other considerable lots, so accurately identified by un- 
broken successions of devises, are known to the writer. 

In this hasty review of Washington's literary remains and 
estimate of its character and extent, it is intended to compre- 
hend not only his letters, private and official, with their drafts, 
but his Diary and also memorandum notes and observations 
and accounts of every description, whether written by his own 
hand or by a secretary at his direction. Every scrap of a 
written record of this great man of destiny has its value to the 
student of history and is deserving of preservation. 

The Dinwiddie papers, which cover a very important period 
in the colonial history of Yirginia, are rich in early autographic 
letters. These were bought in London, in 1881, from Henry 
Stevens, by our most noted philanthropist of Washington city, 
Willianl W. Corcoran, and presented to the Yirginia Histor- 
S. Mis. 57 7 



98 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

ical Society. To this valuable gift he added a fund, which 
enabled its accomplished secretary, R. A. Brock, to edit and 
publish these important historical papers in two handsome 
volumes. The Virginia Historical Register, begun in 1848, 
gave to the public many original Washington letters addressed 
to the executive and officers of the State of Virginia, and also 
letters addressed to Col. George Baylor and others. The 
Southern Literary Messenger, also, from time to time, published 
letters of Gen. Washington. These and other manuscripts 
possessed by that society, and the valued autographs of Wash- 
ington's early correspondence with the Provincial Government 
stored in the State library and the Land office at Richmond, 
and among county surveyor's records, with the numerous collec- 
tions, large and small, owned by citizens in different parts 
of the State, readily place Virginia at the head of all the States 
in the possession of Washington's literary remains. Of course, 
we always except the collections owned by the United States 
Government as the largest and most complete. Within the 
last couple of years there has appeared in the hands of auto- 
graph-dealers of New York several hundred certified returns 
of surveys with plats made along about 1750, 1751, and 1752 in 
the handwriting of George Washington. These had doubtless 
been surreptitiously taken from the records of the counties in 
the Valley of Virginia, to which they had been returned in ac- 
cordance with the law made and provided for the government 
of licensed surveyors. It is thus evident Virginia is still being 
despoiled of her treasures. 

The Massachusetts Historical Society, as early as 1794, came 
into possession by gift from the heirs of Governor Jonathan 
Trumbull, of Connecticut, of a very extensive and valuable 
collection of historical and official papers made by that states- 
man during his long and active public life. The papers were 
in good order, and cover the whole period of the War of 
Independence, of which he was a prominent and efficient pro- 
moter. Among these papers are many autograph letters of 
Gen. Washington, who had frequent occasion to write to the 
executive of Connecticut. These letters of the Commander- 
in-Chief to Governor Trumbull have been published by the 
Massachusetts Historical Society and form Volume n of the 
Trumbull papers and Volume x of the Fifth Series of that so- 
ciety's collection. 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S LIBRARY TONER. 99 

The Long Island Historical Society is the fortunate owner 
of many autograph letters and papers of Gen. Washington. 
They were mainly bought by the Hon. Edward Everett from 
the family or descendants of William Pearce, to whom these let- 
ters were addressed. He had been for some years Washing- 
ton's farm manager at Mount Vernon. Upon the death of Mr. 
Everett, they were sold to the late James Carson Brevoort, 
who presented them to the Long Island Historical Society. 
These papers have been carefully edited by Moncure D. Con- 
way, with valuable biographical and historical notes, and 
form a good-sized volume under the title of "George Washing- 
ton and Mount Vernon ;" being Volume IV of that society's pub- 
lications. 

The New Hampshire Historical Society has published a 
goodly number of letters written by Gen. Washington to 
Meshech Weare, governor of New Hampshire, and to other offi- 
cials during the war of the Eevolution. 

I have no means of knowing what other autograph material 
of the General there may be in the office of the secretary 
of state or the state library of New Hamsphire. 

Sparks, the biographer of Washington, in 1826 found in the 
office of the secretary of state of New Hampshire fifty-eight 
letters of Gen. Washington. Where are they now? 

It is known as a fact that two people who had been the re- 
cipients of many autograph letters from Gen. Washington, writ- 
ten in the fullest freedom which confidence and affection had 
established, were destroyed by the persons to whom they were 
addressed or by their explicit direction. 

I refer to the letters Gen. Washington wrote to his wife, 
and those he wrote to his manager and kinsman, Lund Wash- 
ington. However much we may blame or regret this de- 
struction, both supposed they were doing a meritorious ser- 
vice and honoring the memory of Washington. The fact 
that Mrs. Washington destroyed the letters she had received 
from the General, as well as hers to him, rests upon the tes- 
timony of her granddaughter, Mrs. Peter, who was cognizant 
of the fact. 

The destruction of the letters written to Lund Washington 
by the General rests upon the statement of Mr. Foot, the 
nephew and adopted son of Lund Washington, who informed 
Mr. Sparks that near the close of life Lund Washington in- 
structed his wife to destroy all the letters he had received from 



100 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

the General. This instruction was carried out as far as it was 
in her power. 

The unwarranted surmise that Tobias Lear, long the highly 
esteemed private secretary of Gen. Washington, and who was 
in charge of the GeneraFs papers at the time of his death, had 
abstracted or permitted the removal of autograph letters of 
Washington, and papers which, it is intimated, might have 
compromised, in some manner, Thomas Jeiferson is, I believe, 
without a veritable sponser or any trustworthy testimony upon 
which to rest. 

A knowledge of the safe preservation and present lodging- 
place of the original autographs of the many thousands of let- 
ters and documents written by George Washington, but more 
especially those which have not been printed, or only printed 
in part, interests every American and historical student 
throughout the world. The want of a calendar and a reposi- 
tory of these scattered treasures, or veritable copies of them in 
print or in manuscript where they might be consulted, con- 
fronts every inquirer who attempts to study the life of Gen. 
Washington and the history of the American Revolution. 
Thus far, the most available aid in this direction to the stu- 
dent has been Sparks's collection of the Writings of Washing- 
ton. 

As a slight amplification of the field, beyond this 
valuable publication, I venture brief references to a few of 
the many personal memoirs which contain letters of Washing- 
ton not readily found elsewhere. 

The belief is quite general that George Washington preserved 
complete drafts of all his public letters. I am not aware that 
he ever made or authorized such a statement; yet his collec- 
tion proves to be so rich in these drafts as to give some credit 
to this notion. However, I very much doubt whether an ex- 
amination and comparison would sustain the correctness of this 
belief. Many of these drafts are in autograph, others seem- 
ingly made from dictation are in the handwriting of clerks ; the 
latter are frequently interlined and corrected in Washington's 
own handwriting. Madison's collection of autograph letters 
of Washington shows over twenty of which no copies are pre- 
served in the General's files. 

The earliest letter-press copies of Washington's letters that 
I have seen are of 1793. The historian, who desires to secure 
copies of all of Washington's letters can not, I apprehend, 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S LIBRARY TONER. 101 

afford to rest his hopes on the theory that duplicates have 
been preserved, but should endeavor to obtain copies from 
originals (that is, the letter sent) wherever and whenever they 
coine to his notice; besides, the letter sent has often been found 
amplified beyond the draft and transcript. No editor of 
Washington's writings has ever pretended to do more than 
publish selections from his writings ; it is doubtless true that 
no important letters of his have been withheld, and it is uni- 
versally conceded that those published show his preeminence 
among the great men of the world. Students in history 
welcome any publication that gives original letters and doc- 
uments complete and with literal accuracy. 

Among the preserved early memoirs published was that of 
Maj. Gen. William Heath in 1798. He introduced a number 
of the letters which he had received from Gen. Washington on 
military matters. 

A memoir of the life of Eichard Henry Lee, by his grandson, 
E. H. Lee, published in 1825, contains much of the correspond- 
ence between Gen. Washington and this great patriot of the 
Eevolution. These letters were written during the progress of 
the war and refer only to military and public affairs* Doubt- 
less others have been preserved by the heirs of this family, of 
a social and business character, written during Washington's 
youth and early manhood, to Mr. Lee, who was his esteemed 
friend from childhood. 

The life and correspondence of Joseph Eeed, statesman and 
soldier, of Philadelphia, also brought many letters of Gen. 
Washington to the notice of the public ; giving them with lit- 
eral accuracy. 

The Marquis de Chastellux, who was connected with the 
French army in America during the Eevolution, in a volume 
of his travels in North America, published in Paris in 1786, 
translated into English and issued in London in 1787, a revised 
edition of which, with notes, etc., was published in 1828, gives 
quite a number of letters which this worthy Frenchman had 
received from Gen. Washington. They are mainly upon mili- 
tary affairs, entirely characteristic of the general and full of 
interest. 

The memoirs of Gen. Lafayette, in six volumes, published in 
Paris in 1837, contain many letters from Gen. Washington, as 
also from other political and military characters in the United 
States. He had kept a diary or journal of the principal events 



102 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

in which he took part in America, so that his account of affairs 
has the character and views of a personal actor. It is probable 
that he had in his possession many other letters from the 
Commander- in- Chief not introduced into his memoirs. 

The papers of Gen. Rochambeau, now in the Library of Con- 
gress, have many autograph letters of Gen. Washington, and 
copies of many others in French, the originals having been 
given to friends and autograph collectors, before they came 
into the possession of the Government. 

The careful studies which have been given to the volumi- 
nous writings and lives of John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, 
Alexander Hamilton, Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson and 
James Madison, each of whom were influential actors in the 
Eevolution and in the founding of the American Republic, add 
much to our historical treasures, but the methods of the edi- 
tors did not afford opportunities to introduce many of the let- 
ters of Gen. Washington. 

A collection of Washington's letters, written between 1781 
and 1783, to Brig. Gen. William Irvine, who was at that time 
intrusted with the defenses of the northwestern frontier, has 
been carefully edited and handsomely printed at Madison, 
Wis., by C. W. Butterfield. The original Irvine papers from 
which the volume was prepared are now in the possession of 
the Pennsylvania Historical Society. 

The lives and public services of a number of patriots and 
compatriots with Washington in the armies of the Re volution, 
such as Philip Schuyler, Arthur St. Clair, Henry Knox, Joseph 
Jones, Henry Lee, Edmund Randolph and many other conteni 
poraries with whom the General was on terms of intimacy, and 
between whom many official and friendly letters passed, have 
been given to the public in their published lives and memoirs. 

Marshall's Life of Washington presents a clear exposition 
of his political views, and gives an authentic documetary his- 
tory of the various causes and acts which led to the Ameri- 
ican Revolution and the independence of the colonies, and 
will always hold high rank in the literature of the subject, 
but the close argumentative methods pursued by the writer 
give him little scope for introducing original letters from Wash- 
ington. 

The greatest storehouse of Washington letters and re- 
corded papers, for the majority of students, is the collection 
given to the public by that ripe scholar and able historian, 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S LIBRARY TONER. 103 

Jared Sparks. No fault can be found with his work, except as 
to the method adopted, which was the fashion of his time and 
still prevails, to select, omit and dress up the manuscript to 
suit the taste and opinions of the editor. As regards a com- 
prehensive knowledge of the subject-matter under discussion, 
a thorough acquaintance with the resources of the country 
and the character, ability and services of Washington and his 
associates, no writer has equaled, much less excelled, Sparks; 
nor are his labors likely soon to be superseded or displaced 
with historical students. The writings of Washington now 
being edited by Worthington C. Ford give some desirable let- 
ters not to be found in Sparks, while he omits others of value 
given by that editor. Some of the lives, which have been 
published of George Washington, reflect hasty studies, con- 
tracted views and personal estimates of the writers, rather 
than the presentation of a comprehensive and impartial pic- 
ture of Washington as he was, his opinions and his labors. 
It is, therefore, desirable and all-important that writers have 
access to original documents or faithful transcripts, so that 
all his recorded acts and utterances may be assembled before 
students without curtailment, augmentation, or distortion of 
any kind, before they can produce a true history of the life, and 
properly estimate the influence of George Washington upon his 
country and constitutional government. 

The liberty which writers have taken with the Washington 
manuscripts in giving them to the press, makes it of special 
interest to historians to know where the originals are, and 
whether they exist in the chirography of a clerk or secretary, 
and are signed, or whether they are entirely in the General's 
handwriting; and whether those published are literal tran- 
scripts of an original autograph. 

With no complete information in detail, I however venture 
the opinion that the extent of the autograph material pos- 
sessed by the Massachusetts Historical Society in Boston and 
the various public institutions of Massachusetts makes that 
State the second most extensive owner of these autograph 
treasures. 

Two volumes selected by John Gary, LL. D., from the official 
letters of George Washington written to the American Con- 
gress while he was in command of the Continental forces, were 
published in London in 1795 without notes or an editor's name. 
The same work was printed the following year in Boston, and 



104 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

also in New York. The publishers contemplated issuing a 
third volume, but this was not consummated. It was not 
deemed prudent by the Government to permit all of the Gen- 
eral's letters on military affairs and papers on the policy of the 
United States to be published at that time, so that this selec- 
tion, though an important contribution toward a history of the 
Revolution, represents but a small part of Washington's let- 
ters and suggestions to the Continental Congress. 

The Historical Society of Pennsylvania largely represents 
the State in the possession of the Washington autograph ma- 
terial in Pennsylvania. This institution has been made rich 
by the gifts, from time to time, of extensive and choice private 
collections of literary remains. I am informed the collec- 
tion now under their control exceeds four hundred autograph 
letters. The State capital not being situated in a literary or 
publishing center, historical documents naturally gravitated 
to the historical society in Philadelphia. However, many 
other institutions and libraries, public and private, in that 
city possess valuable collections. In 1826, when Jared Sparks 
began looking up and copying Washington's papers, he found 
many autograph letters of the General in the office of the gov- 
ernor of the State. I infer from an interview with the libra- 
rian that these letters are no longer on file there. One of the 
letters Sparks describes as comprising ten folio pages in auto- 
graph. 

The State of Connecticut ought to possess, and probably 
has in her State archives and public institutions, a large col- 
lection of Washington's letters, for there were in that Com- 
monwealth many influential public characters who had occa- 
sion to write to the commander- in-chief, and there was no 
executive of any State with whom the General of the Conti- 
nental army corresponded more frequently during the Revo- 
lution than with Governor Trumbull. 

In 1848 the legislature of New Jersey caused to be pub- 
lished a volume of selections from the original manuscripts 
and letters in the State library or office of the secretary of 
State. This publication is entitled " Selections from the cor- 
respondence of the Executive of New Jersey from 1776 to 
1786." The volume contains letters from many eminent polit- 
ical and military characters not easily found elsewhere. Of 
the twenty-six letters of Washington given, but six appear in 
Sparks. 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S LIBRARY TONER. 105 

The New York Historical Society and the State Library 
have each fine collections of original letters of Gen. Washing- 
ton. These institutions have become the custodians of a num- 
ber of private collections of historical students and of family 
papers, many of them containing autograph material of Gen. 
Washington, some of which have been printed in the New 
York Historical Society's publications. 

Without attempting to enumerate all the books and maga- 
zines in which letters of Washington have been published, 
still the Magazine of American History is conspicuous from 
the great number to be found in it. The interested inquirer 
should also consult Giles's Eegister, Harper's Magazine, The 
Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Dawson's 
Historical Magazine and other publications of this character. 

The States of Maryland, New Hampshire, New Jersey, 
Ehode Island, Georgia, Ohio, Wisconsin and North and South 
Carolina have each the foundation on which to form a collec- 
tion of Washington letters. The Lenox Library in New York 
city has been for years a leading buyer of choice autograph 
Washington letters and documents. 

There are many gentlemen of wealth and culture in the vari- 
ous sections of the Union who possess choice libraries and 
rich collections of this highly prized Washington autographic 
material. The following are especially worthy of mention, as 
best known to the writer, Messrs. William S. Baker, George 
W. Childs, Ferdinand J. Dreer, Simon Gratz and Charles 
Eoberts, of Philadelphia; Dr. Emmet and Mr. Wm. A. Have- 
myer, of New York; and Mr. Gunther, of Chicago. But there 
are doubtless many others. 

The late Joseph W. Drexel, of New York, a quiet collector 
of rare autographs, had, at the time of his death, a complete 
set of the signers of the Declaration of Independence and also 
of the signers of the Constitution of the United States. He 
had besides in his collection over thirty autograph letters of 
Washington, and a plan of Mount Vernon drawn by Washing- 
ton's own hand. 

A very valuable collection of the autograph letters owned 
by the estate of the late J. C. McGuire, of Washington, D. C., 
was sold in December, 1892, at the salesrooms of Birch's Sons, 
auctioneers, in Philadelphia. The collection was extensively 
advertised and admirably catalogued, and attracted great 
attention among autograph collectors, historical writers and 
librarians. 



106 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

From the many letters by Gen. Washington, it is (and for a 
long time to come will be) possible to buy autograph letters, 
as they emerge from hiding places among old family papers, 
from which they have never yet been separated. From this 
source the autograph speculator and auctioneer for years may 
be able to make more or less notable collections and catalogue 
sales. 

Vie wing Gen. Washington's autographic and literary remains 
in a broad, comprehensive way, and knowing that they are 
of inestimable value to a thorough study of his life and the 
history of American independence, I include every letter, doc- 
ument and paper written by him as coming under this designa- 
tion. It is presumed that autograph letters of Gen. Washing- 
ton were more carefully preserved by those who received them, 
and more prized by their heirs and descendants than the let- 
ters of any other conspicuous character in history. To the end, 
therefore, of founding a central and national depository of 
Washington's writings, which aims to assemble and to pre- 
serve literal copies of everything he ever wrote, to be open and 
accessible to all students, the writer solicits from the owners 
of such the favor of accurate copies of any original paper writ- 
ten by Gen. Washington, to be deposited in the " Toner col- 
lection " in the Library of Congress. The following are the 
names of some families and public characters with whom 
Washington corresponded, and among whose descendants 
it is probable that there may be lodged many important 
autograph letters. There are doubtless many other families, 
not thought of by the writer, whose descendants may have 
Washington papers. Many persons, as a security against acci- 
dents, have already deposited their Washington letters in 
State or public libraries. John Adams, John Armstrong, 
Theodoric Bland, Daniel Brodhead, John Cadwalader, Bene- 
dict Calvert, Edward Carrington, Charles and Daniel Carroll, 
Laudon Carter, Archibald and Robert Cary, George Clinton, 
Nicholas Cooke, Dr. James Craik, William Crawford, Bar- 
tholomew Dandridge, John Dickinson, Count D'Estaing, Will- 
iam, George W., and Bryan Fairfax, Benjamin Franklin, 
Joshua Fry, Horatio Gates, William Gordon, William Gray- 
son, Nathanael Greene, Alexander Hamilton, John Hancock, 
Edward Hand, Benjamin and R. H. Harrison, Moses Hazen, 
William Heath, Patrick Henry, Francis Hopkinson, Robert 
Howe (N. C.), David Humphreys, William Irvine, John Jay, 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S LIBRARY TONER. 107 

Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Johnson, Joseph Jones, Henry 
Knox, Gen. Lafayette, John Laurens, Tobias Lear, Ben- 
jamin Lincoln, Charles, Henry and Richard Henry Lee, 
Robert and William Livingston, Alexander McDougall, James 
McHenry, Allen McLane. James Madison, John Marshall, 
George Mason, George, John and Hugh Mercer, James Mon- 
roe, Daniel Morgan, Gouverneur and Robert Morris, William 
Moultrie, Thomas Nelson, Samuel H. Parsons, Edmund Pen- 
dleton, Timothy Pickering, Charles Cotesworth and Thomas 
Pinckney, Israel Putnam, Edmund Randolph, Joseph Reed, 
John Robinson, Edward and John Rutledge, Arthur St. 
Clair, John Sinclair, Philip Schuyler, Roger Sherman, Alex- 
ander Spotswood, Adam Stephen, Lord Stirling, Baron 
Steuben, David Stuart, John Sullivan, Benjamin Talemadge, 
James, Tench and William Tilghman, Jonathan Trumbull, 
father and son, Artemas Ward, James, John and Joseph 
Warren, Anthony Wayne, Meshech Weare, James Wilson, 
John Witherspoon, Oliver Wolcott, James Wood, William 
Woodford and David Wooster. 

To this list might be added hundreds of names in Virginia 
and Maryland, and also the names of officers of rank attached 
to the French forces cooperating with the American army dur- 
ing the Revolution, as well as the commanders of the British 
army to whom Gen. Washington on occasions wrote letters. 

At different times since the principal sales, already referred 
to, of Washington relics, other minor collections of autograph 
material, though how severed from his manuscript collection 
and by what devices brought together, it would be difficult to 
state, have by the art of the auctioneer been thrust alluringly 
upon the market. These relics of the " father of our country" 
would indeed seem to have a " Heavenly grace" about them 
since they are never exhausted. Thus far there has been but 
little fraud practiced upon the public in the fabrication of what 
is commonly designated " genuine Washington relics." It is 
surmised, however, that there may have been sold a few more 
chairs, tables, sideboards, fenders, andirons, plates, table- 
ware, candlesticks, etc., than were ever at Mount Yernon, but 
the fad is progressive and will doubtless extend to autographic 
material. The attempt some years ago of a Washington City 
dealer in second-hand books to introduce a book plate in imita- 
tion of the one used by Gen. Washington, into a lot of old 
books, to impose on buyers is not forgotten. Although that 



108 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

attempt failed, others managed with greater cunning may prove 
more dangerous. 

The descendants of most of Washington's heirs seem to have 
been strangers to any sentiment or feeling of sacredness for 
articles once owned by the General, which the public suppose 
they naturally would attach to the records, books, and bric- 
a-brac left by their illustrious kinsman. This defect of grati- 
tude and want of due appreciation seem almost incomprehen- 
sible to the present generation of patriotic Americans, and yet 
this was more or less apparent from the time of the General's 
death. Neither the executors nor the heirs seem ever to have 
entertained other than a commercial idea of the value of the 
immortal Washington's memorial and historic treasures. From 
the various sales of relics that have taken place it is made ap- 
parent that Justice Bushrod Washington, who was one of the 
largest beneficiaries, and who had the custody of all the precious 
papers must have suffered a great mass of autographic material 
to be taken away from the collection, but whether with or with- 
out warrant we have no means of knowing. Tradition credits 
Justice Bushrod Washington with the exercise of a most gra- 
cious hospitality to visitors coming to Mount Vernon during his 
ownership, and as having repeatedly invited distinguished 
persons while viewing the sage's library and papers to help 
themselves to specimens of Gen. Washington's handwriting as 
well as to letters from distinguished persons to him. The low 
estimate, or want of any adequate appreciation, of the historic 
value of the manuscript papers which remained at Mount Ver- 
non, after the death of the General and his wife, may be said 
to have become contagious among all who had access to them. 
Even the historian, Jared Sparks, it would seem became in- 
fected, and deliberately mutilated memorandum books and even 
the diary itself (although he says it was essential in writing 
the life of the General), by tearing out leaves to give to friends 
and relic hunters as veritable autographic memorials of our 
illustrious Washington. For evidence of this fact see speci- 
mens in the Dreer collection in the library of the Pennsylvania 
Historical Society, given by Mr. Sparks to Eobert Gilmor, 
February 22, 1832, with the certificate of the fact in Judge 
Gilmor's handwriting attached. 

The many manuscript volumes which comprise the diary of 
Washington are now so scattered that it is hazardous to as- 
sume that they were or were not (in one form or another) a 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S LIBRARY TONER. 109 

complete and continuous record as to time, if not as to method 
and matter, when they left the hands of their author. It is 
possible and to be hoped that other volumes and parts of vol- 
umes and missing leaves not now known to exist may yet be 
discovered which may fill all gaps. Those which are known 
to be extant are now the property of the United States Gov- 
ernment, historical societies, public and private libraries, and 
collectors of literary rarities, so that it is very difficult to find 
or obtain access to them or bring the disconnected parts to- 
gether. As far as the writer knows, his is the only complete 
assemblage of copies of all the known originals that has ever 
been made since they were so ruthlessly dispersed from the 
library shelves at Mount Yernon. 

The three months of Washington's diary for August, Sep- 
tember and October, 1774, here given, comprise a most im- 
portant period in the early movements which led the people of 
the English colonies up to an armed resistance against the 
tyranny of the mother country. In them are exhibited Wash- 
ington's busy life, his prudent conduct, diverse employments as 
a planter, a patriotic citizen and legislator, in whose judgment 
the people, even then, with great unanimity confided. For 
sixteen consecutive years he had served in the assembly of 
Virginia. His military reputation, too, was the most admired 
of any living American-born citizen. The people of Fairfax 
County, in mass meeting, had but recently chosen him their 
chairman and had sent him as a deputy to the provincial con- 
vention of Virginia, where he offered those aggressive non-im- 
portation resolutions which were unanimously adopted. This 
thoroughly patriotic convention, too, in its wisdom, selected 
him as one of the delegates from Virginia to the First Conti- 
nental Congress in 1774. His daily pursuits and his associa- 
tion with the leading men of the day at Williamsburg, Fred- 
ericksburg, Alexandria, Mount Vernon and Philadelphia, are 
here a matter of record, and attest the fact that wherever 
Washington went and in whatever company he appeared, he 
received marked attention from the most distinguished people. 
His accurate knowledge of public affairs, his good sense and 
tact in social life, as well as in the political arena, during that 
and other exciting periods in our history, all stamp him as a 
man of great wisdom, sound judgment and diplomatic address 
of the first order. For some time prior to the meeting of the 
Congress of 1774, he had been receiving at Mount Vernon 



110 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

numerous and repeated visits from some of the most prominent 
men of Virginia and Maryland, among whom were such char- 
acters as George Mason of Virginia, and Thomas Stone of 
Maryland, the signer of the Declaration. 

On setting out on this occasion for Philadelphia, as was his 
custom when going east by Upper Marlboro, or south by Port 
Tobacco, he sent his horses, servants and baggage, as well 
as those of his traveling companions, across the Potomac 
at the ferry, which was on his own plantation, some hours 
in advance of his own departure. A number of gentlemen 
from the neighborhood were his guests that day, and after 
dinner, Washington with Edmund Pendleton and Patrick 
Henry, also members of the Continental Congress, who had 
been resting a couple of days at Mount Vornon, crossed the 
Potomac River in front of the mansion in his own rowboat. 
Mounting their horses in waiting for them on the Maryland 
side, they rode in the shade of the afternoon by the Port To- 
bacco road to Upper Marlboro, where they lodged for the 
night. 

This introduction has been extended much beyond the in- 
tention of the writer; but he found in his search for the miss- 
ing volumes of the General's diary that the facts in the 
history of the breaking up of the great Mount Vernon library 
were not generally known or accessible to students. It is 
hoped, however, that this attempt at a schedule of the Wash- 
ington papers arid library, with the connected narrative of the 
more important sales and removal of George Washington's 
books and papers from Mount Vernon, with the statement 
where most of these treasures have found a permanent, yet 
accessible resting-place, may be a sufficient apology. 

The text of the diary is given with literal exactness, the 
editor restricting his agency in the publication to footnotes, 
which are designed to furnish the reader with brief references 
to persons and places named in the diary. No attempt is 
made to recount the proceedings of this Congress. The de- 
bates were never made public and the parts taken by the 
individual members can not be known. Washington was 
not an extempore speaker, nor does he record speeches of 
others. It has been ascertained that John Dickinson drafted 
the petition to the king and the address to the inhabitants of 
Quebec, and that Jay drafted the address to the people ot 
Great Britain; while Eichard Henry Lee, of Virginia, pre- 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S LIBRARY TONER. Ill 

pared the memorial to the inhabitants of the British colonies, 
a paper which extorted a eulogy from Chatham. In nearly 
every instance the individuals named in the diary were enter- 
prising citizens, and some of them leaders of thought among 
their neighbors. Many of them were zealous in defense of 
colonial rights, and won renown in the army, while some were 
lukewarm, and in the march of events adhered passively to the 
crown, though a few took up arms in its defense. The diary, 
even in this aspect, throws important light on the views of cer- 
tain actors during the early days of the controversy which pre- 
ceded the armed contest that ended in the independence of 
the colonies. Washington's diplomacy and cultured address 
opened to him castle and mansion, and enabled him to mix freely 
with the leaders of every circle in society and learn all shades 
of popular opinion, thus obtaining views and convictions not 
usually disclosed. 



DIARY OF COL. GEORGE WASHINGTON FOR AUGUST, SEPTEM- 
BER AND OCTOBER, 1774. 



Where, how, or with whom my time is Spent. 1 

Aug*. 1 st . Went from Col. Bassetts 2 to Williamsburg 3 to the 
Meeting of the Convention 4 Dined at M r8< Campbells 5 
spent y e Evening in my Lodgings* 

1 This is the formula or heading repeated in the diary at the beginning 
of each month for a year or more . 

2 Col. Burwell Bassett, of " Eltham," was the brother-in-law of Gen. Wash- 
ington. He was the son of William Bassett, of New Kent County, Va., 
owner of the fine estate known as " Eltham," on the York River, a little 
above the junction of the Pamunky and Mattapony rivers, which he left 
to his son. Burwell was twice married; first, to Ann Kidly Chamber- 
layne, daughter of a planter in New Kent, on the Pamunky River. She 
lived but a few years. His second wife was Anna Maria, daughter of Col. 
John Dandridge, a sister of Mrs. Martha Custis, the wife of George Wash- 
ington. Col. Burwell Bassett was killed by a fall from a spirited horse he 
was training to the saddle. He had two song and three daughters. 

3 Williamsburg, the Colonial capital of Virginia, is situated between the 
James and the York rivers, in James City County. It was made the seat 
of the Colonial government in 1698, on the removal of the capital from 
Jamestown, on account of a very disastrous fire, which consumed many of 
the public records and much of the town. Williamsburg continued to 
be the official residence of the governor and all the provincial officers, 
and the place where the House of Burgesses met until 1779, when the 
seat of the new government was removed to Richmond. The College of 
William and Mary, founded in 1692, with what was supposed to be an 
ample endowment and an assured income to support it, was established 
at Williamsburg. 

4 This was the convention of Virginia. A circular letter drafted by eighty- 
nine members of the house of burgesses, of whom Washington was one, at an 
improvised meeting in the "Apollo room " of the "Raleigh tavern" in Wil- 
liamsburg, after the assembly had been dissolved by the governor on 
May 25, 1774, was sent to their constituents, recommending that each 
and every county in Virginia should send deputies to a convention to 
be held in Williamsburg on the 1st day of August, 1774. At the proposed 
convention the various questions exciting the public mind, such as 

S. Mis. 57 8 113 



114 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

2. At the Convention dined at the Treasurer's 7 at my 
Lodgings in the Evening 

3. Dined at the Speaker's 8 & spent the Evening at my own 
Lodgings. 

taxation, non-importation, and the holding of a Continental Congress, 
were to be generally considered. If the latter proposition was accepted, 
the convention was to have power to select the delegates to a con- 
gress of all the Colonies. The measures recommended by this letter be- 
ing approved, the convention met, was well attended, and their resolves 
were practically unanimous. 

The following memorandum, in Gen. Washington's handwriting, doubt- 
less gives the result of the ballots in this convention for delegates to the 
first Continental Congress. The orignal is preserved in the Dreer collec- 
tion in the Pennsylvania Historical Society : 

1774. 

Peyton Randolph, Esq r 104 

Rich d - Henry Lee 100 

Geo. Washington , 98 

Pat. Henry 89 

Rich*- Bland 79 

Ben. Harrison 66 

Edm d - Pendleton 62 

6 Mrs. Campbell, of Williamsburg, kept a large boarding house, or 

possibly, a licensed ordinary. Washington's cash books show that he had, 
at times, patronized her house since 1759. It is probable that Mrs. Camp- 
bell was the widow of Colin Campbell, deputy adjutant to Washington 
in 1754. 

6 Washington had one of his own houses in Williamsburg fitted up with 
the necessary furniture for lodging and office facilities, for transacting 
business and for conferences with his friends while in attendance at the 
meetings of the House of Burgesses. The General had also a house of his 
own in Alexandria, furnished in a similar manner, where he occasionally 
lodged and where he always met gentlemen for the transaction of business 
during the sessions of the court and at other times by appointment, in 
that town. 

7 Robert Carter Nicholas, esq., was chosen treasurer in 1766 to succeed 
John Robinson, esq., and served until after 1775. 

8 Peyton Randolph, esq., one of the grand patriots of the American 
Revolution, was born at "Tazewell Hall," Williamsburg, Va., 1721, and 
died of apoplexy in Philadelphia while attending Congress, October, 
22, 1775. He was educated at William and Mary College, studied law 
at the Inner Temple in London, received the appointment of the King's 
Attorney for Virginia in 1748, while William Gooch was governor, and the 
same year was elected to a seat in the House of Burgesses. In 1766, on the 
death of John Robinson, he became speaker. In 1754 he was commis- 
sioned by the burgesses to go to England and lay before the Ministry the 
unconstitutionality of the exaction by the governor of the pistole fee on 
each land patent. He went, but without the permission of Governor Din- 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S DIARY, 1774 TONER. 115 

4. Dined at the Attorneys 9 & spent the Evening at my 
own Lodgings 

5. Dined at M". Dawson's 10 & Spent the Evening at iny 
own Lodgings 

widdie, presented the case with ability and secured a modification of the 
practice. The fee, in time, was discontinued. After Braddock's defeat 
he headed a volunteer company of 100 mounted men to protect the frontier 
against an invasion of Indians. In 1758 he was appointed a visitor of Wil- 
liam and Mary College, and was a valued officer of that institution. In 
1764, as a member of the Assembly, he drew up the remonstrance of Vir- 
ginia to the pending stamp act. He was chairman of the committee of 
correspondenee in 1773, and influential in bringing about the Continental 
Congress. He presided over the Virginia convention of August 1, 1774, 
and was the first of seven deputies selected to attend the Continental Con- 
gress, which met in Philadelphia the 5th of September that year, and was 
unanimously chosen their presiding officer. He had had much parlia- 
mentary experience, was a man of noble presence, self-possession and 
kindliness of manner which made him very popular. The friendship be- 
tween Randolph and Washington was very strong. His wife was the 
sister of Benjamin Harrison, of Virginia. They left no children. His 
remains were removed from Philadelphia to Virginia and interred in the 
chapel of William and Mary College. 

9 John Randolph, esq., was the son of Sir John and the brother of the 
Hon. Peyton Randolph. He was born at "Tazewell Hall," Williams- 
burg, Va., in 1727, and died at Brompton, London, England, January 31, 
1784. After graduating at William and Mary College, he studied law and 
soon took high rank at the bar. His elegant home in Williamsburg was 
a center of literary and fashionable life before the Revolution. In 1766 
he succeeded his brother Peyton as attorney-general of the Colony of 
Virginia. On the outbreak of the Revolution, he was for a time the me- 
dium of communication between LordDunmore, the burgesses and council. 
His sentiment of honor, his regard for his oath of office and his friend- 
ship for Lord Dunmore wove a web so binding as to inhibit him from tak- 
ing up arms on either side and, therefore, with his wife and two daugh- 
ters, sailed for England, leaving his son Edmund, the patriot, behind. 
His wife was Ariana, daughter of Edmund Jennings, and granddaughter 
of Edmund Jennings, for a time secretary of the Colony of Virginia, then 
attorney-general, and later president of the council, and acting gov- 
ernor of Virginia. After his death his remains were brought to Vir- 
ginia and interred, according to his own request, in the chapel of Wil- 
liam and Mary College. 

10 Mrs. Elizabeth Dawson is supposed to have been Miss Churchill, who 
married Commissary William Dawson, afterwards president of William 
and Mary College. As a widow, she kept a fashionable boarding house 
in Williamsburg for some years. In 1768 she disposed of her coach by 
raffle, in which Washington took chances. On June 1, 1774, his cash 
book shows that he lent the lady 2. His ledger in after years showg 
this account closed by loss, 2. 



116 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

6. Dined at M rs> Campbells & Spent the Evening at my own 
Lodgings 

7. Left Williamsburg ab*- 9 Oclock & got up to Col 0< Bassetts 
to Dinner where I stayd the remaining part of the day & Night 

Aug*- 8 th ' Left Col - Bassetts Visited my own Plant n * n in 
King W m> 12 & M r< Custis's 13 in King & Queen- 14 dind at 
King W m - C*- House 15 & lodged at Tods Bridge 16 

11 Besides the plantation owned by Washington and situated in King 
William County, there were lands belonging to the Custis estate, of which 
he was executor, both in this, New Kent and King and Queen counties. 
Washington also owned and operated two plantations on the Rappahan- 
nock, and three in the valley of Virginia, besides the five composing his 
Mount Vernon estate, and known as Mansion House, Dogue Run, Muddy 
Hole, Ferry farm and River farm. 

12 King William County, Va., lies between the Mattapony and the 
Pamunky rivers which bound it on the north and south sides respectively. 

13 Col. John Parke Custis was born at the " White House" on the Pa- 
munky River in New Kent County, Va., in 1753. He was the son of Daniel 
Parke and Martha (Dandridge) Custis. His father died leaving John and 
Patsy Custis with a good productive estate to the care of their mother. 
January 6, 1759, Mrs. Martha Custis was married to Col. George Washing- 
ton of Mount Vernon. At the latter place these children as wards passed 
their childhood and enjoyed the protection and guidance of their mother 
and their foster father, Gen. George Washington. While a boy, Wash- 
ington spoke of him as John and Jacky, but in 1771 begins to give him 
his full name, John Parke Custis and writes of him as Mr. Custis. John 
Parke Custis was educated, at first, by private tutors, but later was for a 
time at St. John's College, Annapolis, and also at Princeton, N. J. He 
inherited a good estate which had been admirably managed for him by 
Gen. Washington. February 3, 1774, he was united in marriage to Eleanor, 
familiarly called Nelly, daughter of Benedict Calvert of "Mount Airy," 
Md. The young couple for some years resided at Mount Vernon and 
then removed to their own plantation known as " Abingdon, " on the 
Potomac River immediately above Alexandria. He was always consider- 
ately cared for by Gen. Washington and in all respects treated as a son. 
Manifesting a desire to serve in the army, Washington appointed him his 
aide-de-camp with the rank of colonel and he proceeded with the army to 
Yorktown. During the siege of that place, he was seized with fever and 
died at "Eltham," the residence of his uncle, Burwell Bassett, November 
5, 1781, leaving a wife and four children: Elizabeth Parke, born August, 
1776; Martha Parke, December, 1777; Eleanor Parke, March, 1779; and 
George Washington Parke, April, 1781. The youngest two were adopted 
by Gen. Washington and his wife. The remains of Col. John Parke Custis 
were interred at "Eltham. " In the fall of 1783 his widow was married to 
Dr. David Stuart, of Maryland. 

14 King and Queen County, Va., lies between the Mattapony and the 
Piankatank rivers, which bound it on the south and north, respectively. 

16 King William Court-House is about 2 miles from the Mattapony 
River on the main road to Fredericksburg and about 25 miles from Wil- 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S DIARY, 1774 TONER. 117 

9. Breakfasted at Roys Ord?- 17 Dined and lodged at Col ' 
Lewis's 18 in Fredericksburg 19 

10. Breakfasted at Tylers 20 on Acquiae 21 & Dined at home 

liamsburg. This court house was unfortunately destroyed by fire a few 
years ago, causing another serious loss to those already sustained, and 
adding to the calamitous destruction of Virginia records. 

16 Todd's Bridge crossed the Mattapony River about 2 miles above Aylett's 
and some 6 miles from King William Court-House. Todd's Ordinary was 
kept there on the north side of the stream. 

17 Roy's Ordinary was kept by Boswell Roy, an extensive planter, a 
few miles south of Bowling Green. He was a member of a numerous and 
influential family of this name, who were among the early settlers on the 
Rappahannock and in its vicinity, and from whom the village, Port Royal, 
got its name. The name was once attached to "Roy's warehouse" and 
Royston's in Caroline County. The patriot and distinguished judge, Ed- 
mund Pendleton, married a daughter of Boswell Roy. 

18 Col. Fielding Lewis, patriot and planter of Fredericksburg, Va., was 
born in Spottsylvania County, 1726, and died at "Kenmore House," on his 
large estate adjoining the town of Fredericksburg, December, 1781. He 
was an enterprising, active, successful and popular business man and the 
first mayor of the town. He was one of the magistrates of the county, a 
member of the House of Burgesses and an early and influential patriot in 
the Revolution. His business capacity led him to be placed at the head 
of an establishment founded in Fredericksburg, early in the Revolution, 
for the manufacture of arms. The site of these works is still known as 
"Gunning Green." He was twice married; first, to Catherine Washing- 
ton, cousin to Gen. Washington, by whom he had three children : John, 
Francis and Warner, the last of whom died in infancy. Second, to Betty, 
only sister of Gen. Washington, by whom he had nine sons and three 
daughters. Mrs. Betty Lewis was majestic in person, lovely in mental 
and moral attributes, and in figure and features closely resembled her il- 
lustrious brother. The grave of Mary, the mother of George Washington, 
is on what was then the Kenmore Estate. After the death of Col. Lewis 
his property was divided equally among his children. 

19 Fredericksburg is situated on a broad plateau on the right bank of 
the Rappahannock River, in Spottsylvania County, Va., and is the seat of 
justice. It is about midway between Washington and Richmond. The 
farm of Augustine Washington, on which his son George passed his child- 
life, was on the left bank of the Rappahannock, a mile or more below the 
present railroad bridge. His widow continued to live there until 1775, 
when her children induced her to remove into the town of Fredericks- 
burg. The distance between Fredericksburg and Mount Vernon is 45 
miles, which Washington repeatedly accomplished, on horseback, in seven 
hours. 

80 Thomas G. Tyler resided on a plantation in the vicinity of Aquia, 
and as early as 1774, perhaps even before that, kept an ordinary. 

21 Aquia was inland, and is a small village at the head of tide water 
on Aquia Creek. The main road from Alexandria and Dumfries to King 
George County and to Fredericksburg crossed the stream at this place. 



118 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

11. At home all day. Miss Calvert 22 here. 

12. At home all day Miss Carlyle 23 & her Sister Nancy 
came here. M r . Willis 24 also diiid here, & went away after- 



13. I rid to the Neck Plantation 25 & came home by Muddy 
hole 26 . 

Near by was the historic Aquia Creek Church, which was very elegant and 
spacious for its time. Shipping merchants early established stores at this 
point and conducted a profitable trade with the planters of Prince Wil- 
liam and Stafford counties. A ferry between Virginia and Maryland, 
which had been maintained near Aquia from an early day, added to the 
importance of the place. 

32 Miss Elizabeth Calvert was the daughter of Benedict Calvert, of 
"Mount Airy," Md., who married Charles Stewart. Her sister Eleanor 
married John Parke Custis, July 3, 1774. Ariana, another and younger 
sister, is, however, presumed to have been too young to have been visiting 
Mount Vernon at this time. She never married. 

83 Miss Sarah, usually called Sally Carlyle, was the daughter of Col. 
John, a merchant of Alexandria, Va., (who served as commissary, with the 
rank of major, in the French and Indian war), and his wife Sarah (Fairfax) 
Carlyle. She had a younger sister, Nancy, and a brother, George, and they 
were all frequent visitors at Mount Vernon. 

24 Francis Willis, jr.,esq., was a young lawyer much employed by Gen. 
Washington and by G. W. Fairfax, about this time, in the management of 
the latter's business. He was the son of Francis, and grandson of Lewis 
Willis, of Fredericksburg, Va,, whose families had intermarried with the 
Washingtons. 

36 "Neck Plantation" was a name applied, for a time, to the farms lying 
immediately above Little Hunting Creek on the Potomac. It contained 
1,207 acres of "plowable land." By the purchase of a tract of 1,806 acres 
from William Clifton in 1760, the bounds of the Mount Vernon estate were 
greatly enlarged. This particular plantation came to be included in what 
was afterwards known as the " River Farm," and is so referred to in Gen. 
Washington's designation of the various farms belonging to his posses- 
sions on the Potomac. (See letter December 12, 1793, to Arthur Young.) 
But there were at least two other larger tracts or farms adjoining this 
purchase from Clifton, included in the River Farm. March 30, 1774, 
Washington records the fact: " Walked to my three plantations in the 
Neck." 

26 Muddy Hole farm lay nearly 3 miles northwest from the Mount Vernon 
mansion house and contained 476 acres of beautifully situated clay land. 
The name had prejudiced this tract in the writer's estimation until he 
traveled over it. No person seems able to account for the name, which was, 
however, given to it before Gen. Washington bought it. This and each 
of the other farms had their overseer, servants, buildings and general outfit 
independent of each other. 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S DIARY, 1774 TONER. 119 

14. Went to Pohick Church 27 with M r . Custis found Mess rs . 
Carlyle, 28 Dalton, 29 Eamsay, 30 Adam, 31 & Doct r . Eumney 32 here 
upon my Eeturn. Doct r . Craik 33 also came in the afternoon. 

37 Pohick Church, Truro Parish, is situated on Pohick Creek, about 7 
miles from Mount Vernon and 4 from Gunston Hall. The first edifice was 
frame, built in 1732. This was the church attended by the occupants of 
Mount Vernon up to 1765, when it had become so dilapidated as to be no 
longer worth repairing. Washington was chosen a vestryman in 1765 and 
was kept in that office for several years. The parishioners resolved at that 
time to build a new church and construct it of brick. After much dis- 
cussion a new site was chosen 2 miles farther up the stream and more cen- 
tral to the majority of the parishioners, though but little, if any, nearer to 
Mount Vernon. It, however, was not completed until 1772. Washington 
drew the plans for it and served on the building committee. The new 
church was erected on ground given for the purpose by Daniel French. 
Washington bought pew No. 28, north side, next the communion table, for 
which he paid 16, and had it marked with his initials. Lund Washing- 
ton bought No. 29, which he afterwards sold to the General. While this 
church was being built the family attended Christ Church, Fairfax Parish, 
in Alexandria, where the General was also a vestryman and had a pew. 
Considering the condition of the roads in those days and the distance to 
be traveled, the Washington family were very constant in their attend- 
ance. 

28 Col. John Carlyle, of Alexandria, was a native of Scotland, who early 
in life became a merchant on the Potomac. He was twice married; first to 
Sarah, second daughter of the Hon. William Fairfax, of "Belvoir." He 
was in business in Alexandria as early as 1745. In 1753 he erected, on Fair- 
fax street, a large stone residence, which is still standing, and in which he 
entertained Gen. Braddock in 1755 and the governors of the five provinces 
who met there to concert measures for the campaign against the French 
on the Ohio, which ended so disastrously. He was appointed by Governor 
Dinwiddie in 1754 commissary of provisions and stores for the expedition 
of that year to the Ohio. His mercantile and shipping business was con- 
ducted under a co-partnership with John Dalton. When, in 1748, a 
charter was granted for the town of Alexandria, he was named in the Act 
as one of the trustees. On the death of his father-in-law, William Fair- 
fax, he was appointed as Royal Collector of the Potomac. He and all the 
members of his family were frequent visitors at Mount Vernon. His 
second wife was Sybil West, daughter of Hugh and Sybil (Harrison) 
West. 

29 Capt. John Dalton, of Alexandria, was a partner with John Carlyle. 
They conducted an extensive domestic trade in the shipping and importing 
business, and were contractors to furnish the chief supplies to the Provin- 
cial Army of Virginia up to the time the French were driven from the 
Ohio. Capt. Dalton got his title by commanding, for a time, a company of 
militia and is occasionally spoken of as colonel. As early as 1748 he was 
a freeholder and voted in Fairfax County. He was one of the original 
trustees of the town of Alexandria, appointed in 1748. Before 1760 he built 
himself, on the northeast corner of Cameron and Fairfax streets, a fine resi- 



120 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 



dence, which is still standing. He was frequently at Mount Vernon on 
business, his firm buying fish, flour and other products from the General. 
His children were also frequent visitors at the same place. He died in 
Alexandria in 1777, leaving a considerable estate. 

30 Capt. William Ramsay, of Alexandria, Va., was born in Scotland in 
1716. He came to America and settled as a trader and merchant in Alex- 
andria in 1744, and died there in 1785. He was well informed in the laws 
of trade, familiar with the markets of the world and very popular 
with the farmers on the Upper Potomac, who bought supplies and mar- 
keted their produce with him. He married Ann McCarty, a relative, 
through the Balls, of the mother of George Washington. Capt. Ramsay 
early and fully identified himself with the town of Alexandria, as well as 
with the Colony of Virginia and the interests of the surrounding sections 
of country. In the act incorporating Alexandria, in 1748, he was named as 
one of the trustees. His extensive commercial and shipping connections 
enabled him to supply much of the outfits to the military expeditions of 
Virginia from 1754 to 1763. On the occasion of an alarm in 1756 of an In- 
dian invasion, he served for a time as captain of a militia company from 
Fairfax, under Washington. His son, Dennis, was colonel of a Virginia 
regiment in the Revolution and served as mayor of Alexandria in 1793. 
Another son, Dr. William Ramsay, served as surgeon throughout the war 
for independence. He was one of the early merchants to reclaim the flats 
and build wharves in front of the town. The Washington and Alexandria 
ferry wharf was originally built by him in 1784-'85. Capt. Ramsay and 
his family were on terms of intimacy at Mount Vernon. Washington's 
letters and also his cashbooks show that the General contributed a part 
of the funds necessary to educate William Ramsay, jr., at Princeton. 

31 Robert Adam, merchant of Alexandria, was born in Scotland, 1731, and 
died on his plantation 4 miles from Alexandria, in Fairfax County, March 
27, 1789. On coming to America he resided for a time in Annapolis, Md., 
before settling in Alexandria, Va., in 1753. He had received careful train- 
ing as a merchant; was well educated; had refined tastes and correct 
habits. Through his business enterprise, there were inaugurated at 
Alexandria a number of industries, some of which are continued to this 
day. He also established methods of exchanges and agencies with mer- 
chants, and shipped to different cities and seaports, which had the effect 
of augmenting the volume and character of his business. For years, he 
bought the whole catch of fish at the different fishing landings of the 
Mount Vernon estate just as they were taken from the seine, cured them 
himself, then packed and shipped them as he found a market. He was a 
zealous and prominent Mason, and largely influenced the forming and the 
founding of the lodge in Alexandria, in 1783. As a merchant, his house 
had a deservedly extensive credit. His home was maintained in elegant 
style, as refinement and culture were natural to him. In 1772 he com- 
pleted a new storeroom, the size and finish of which attracted much atten- 
tion. Gen. and Mrs. Washington, with Patsy Custis, went to Alexandria 
expressly to see it. Mr. Adam left a family of sons and daughters, 
some of whose descendants reside in Alexandria at this time. 

32 Dr. William Rumney, of Alexandria, was a well-educated physician, 
a native of Northumberland, England, where his father was established as 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S DIARY, 1774 TONER. 121 



15. Went in Comp a< with the aforement d> Gentlemen to 
Col- Fairfax's 34 Sale. M r - Bamsay, M r - Dalton, & Doct r - 
Craik came home with me the Best did not Miss Carlyle & 
her Sister went 



master of a Latin school at Alnwick. An uncle was a clergyman at Ber- 
wick, England. The doctor, after receiving a, good classical education, 
studied medicine and qualified for practice in London. He then accepted 
service as a surgeon in the British Colonial army, where he remained for 
several years. Resolving to go to America, he resigned his position, and 
settled in Alexandria, Va., about 1763. He was employed by Washington 
to attend, by the year, the servants of the several farms constituting the 
Mount Vernon estate from 1766 to 1781, at a fixed sum per year. There 
was also a William Rumney, a shipping merchant, in Alexandria, about 
the period of this journal, and for years after the Revolution, supposed to 
be an uncle of the doctor's. It was through the firm of John Rumney & 
Co., of White Haven, England, that Gen. Washington imported the stone 
tiling for the great eastern portico of the Mount Vernon mansion. 

83 Dr. James Craik was born at Obigland, Scotland, in 1732, and died 
on his plantation, " Vaucluse," near Alexandria, in Fairfax County, 
Va., February 6, 1814. He graduated, both in letters and medicine, at 
the University of Edinburgh, and then entered the army as a surgeon, 
serving for some time in the West Indies. Resigning in the winter of 1753, 
he came to Virginia with the intention of practicing his profession at 
Norfolk. But, early in the spring of 1754, an expedition was being organ- 
ized for the Ohio, which he j oined. His name appears at one time as ensign, 
at another as lieutenant, and again as surgeon. He was with Col. George 
Washington in the battle of the Great Meadows and the surrender of " Fort 
Necessity," in July, 1754. On the failure of this enterprise, he remained 
with the troops at Winchester and went out with the unfortunate Brad- 
dock expedition in 1755. He remained attached to the Virginia troops 
until about 1763. While in the army he acquired one or more plantations 
in the valley of Virginia, but eventually bought a plantation in Maryland, 
in the vicinity of Port Tobacco, about 8 miles from Mount Vernon, where 
he resided until after the Revolution. He served as a surgeon in the 
struggle for American Independence and rose to be director-general of the 
hospitals at Williamsburg at the capture of Cornwallis's army. He received 
from Virginia 6,000 acres of land for his services in the Indian and Revo- 
lutionary wars. In 1760 he was married to Mariamne Ewell, by whom he 
had four sons and three daughters ; one of the sous was named George 
Washington, to whose education the General contributed liberally. The 
friendship that was formed between the General and the doctor in 1754 
lasted through their lives, and the latter was always a welcome guest at 
Mount Vernon. It was his sad duty to attend the General in his last ill- 
ness, and was pleasantly remembered in his will as "his old and intimate 
friend." 

34 Colonel George William Fairfax, of " Belvoir," Va., the oldest son of the 
Hon. William Fairfax, was born at Nassau, in the West Indies, in 1724, 
and died at Bath, England, April 3, 1787. The Colonel was educated in 
England, after which he resided with his father at " Belvoir," and found 



122 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

16. Ramsay Dalton & y e Doct r - went away after Breakfast 

17. I rid to Doeg 35 Run, Muddy hole, Mill, 36 &Poseys Plant" 837 . 



profitable employment with Lord Thomas Fairfax, in the Valley of Vir- 
ginia, and in the development for himself of new plantations in that re- 
gion. In 1748 he married Sarah, daughter of Col. Wilson Cary, of Hamp- 
ton, Va. He resided for some years partly at " Belvoir," and in the summer 
at "Greenway Court." On the death of his father, in 1757, he inherited 
" Belvoir" and resided there continously until 1773, when he went to Eng- 
land to attend to some business there, appointing his friend, George Wash- 
ington, his agent. It soon became evident to him that his stay in England 
would, of necessity, be protracted for some years, and in 1774 he directed 
a vendue at which all his household effects should be sold, and " Bel- 
voir" rented. This was done. A list of the articles bought at the first 
sale, August 15, 1774, by Gen. Washington amounting to 169 12s. 6d., may 
be seen in a note in " A Journal of My Journey over the Mountains," p. 16. 
The house was leased but in a few years it was accidentally burned, and 
was never rebuilt. Early in 1775, Washington resigned his agency in the 
management of Fairfax's affairs. His estate in Virginia consisted chiefly 
of lands, much of them of the first quality, which were rapidly enhancing 
in value. As he had no children, "Belvoir" was left to Ferdinand, son of 
the Rev. Bryan Fairfax, and his other property to his heirs. The friend- 
ship continued between Col. Fairfax and Gen. Washington throughout 
their lives. 

36 Dogue Run farm, also spoken of as Dogue Run plantation and Dogue 
Run quarters lay two miles to the southwest of the Mount Vernon Mansion 
House, on a creek of the same name. Washington, in a letter to Arthur 
Young, bearing date 12th December, 1793, describes Dogue Run farm as 
"consisting of six hundred and fifty acres, with a new building for the 
overlooker and covering for forty odd negroes and a new Circular barn 
and stabling and sheds for thirty work-horses and oxen." It adjoined the 
Mill and the Posey farm. 

36 George Washington inherited a small mill at the mouth of Dogue Run 
built by his father and left by him with the "Hunting Creek tract," af- 
terwards known as "Mount Vernon," to Major Lawrence, who left it to 
George. The frequent mention of repairing the mill-dam and race in 
Washington's Diary raises the query as to whether it was not badly loca- 
ted or defective in construction. February 10, 1770, assisted by Mr. Bal- 
lendine, Washington ran a new line of levels on Dogue Run to deter- 
mine a site for a new mill, then about to be built. In January, 1771, he 
records the fact that he had completed the work of turning Piney Branch 
run into Dogue run to augment the supply of water to his two mills. The 
Mill plantation included land on both sides of Dogue run, adjacent to 
the mill but chiefly to the east of Dogue run plantation. In the later years 
of the administration of the estate the name "Mill plantation" disappears 
and it is presumed that the lands were farmed under the supervision of 
the Dogue run overseer and not, therefore, mentioned in Washington's 
enumeration of farms in 1793. 

37 Posey's Plantation refers to a farm which Washington bought of Capt. 
John Posey, lying below the mouth of Dogue Run on the Potomac. In 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S DIARY, 1774 TONER. 123 

18. Eid to the Plantation's in the Neck. found M r . Fitz- 
hugh 38 here upon my Eeturn 

19. Mr. Fitzhugh went away after Breakfast 

20. Eid with M rs * Washington 39 to Alex a - 40 & returnd to 
Dinner 

1753, by Act of Assembly, a ferry from Posey's farm to the plantation of 
Thomas Marshall in Maryland was authorized to be established. Tnere 
was also on the plantation a good fishing landing for seine hauling, and the 
buildings necessary for curing the fish caught. In 1769, Washington 
bought this farm and united it under the Mount Vernon management as a 
part of the Dogue Run Plantation. Capt. Posey at the time, reserved the 
ferry and the ferry house with 12 acres which, however, he sold to Wash- 
ington in 1772. The ferry was continued as an enterprise by Gen. Wash- 
ington and the fishing landing was also used in season. Capt Posey is be- 
lieved to have served with Washington in the French and Indian War. 
He was the father of Col. Thomas Posey of the Revolution. 

38 Mr. Fitzhugh. There was a numerous and influential family of 

this name in Virginia, with whom Washington was on terms of familiar 
intercourse but there is nothing in the text to designate the particular 
person here referred to. The writer is left to conjecture that it was either 
William Fitzhugh of King George County, or the planter John of " Mar- 
mion" of that county, both of whom were frequently at Mount Vernon. 

39 Gen. Washington's attention to his wife and the respectful manner in 
which he addressed her, alike in the family circle and in company, as well 
as when referring to her in his diary and letters, was always most consid- 
erate, polite and affectionate. 

4(1 Alexandria, Va. This location was included in a patent or grant for 
6,000 acres of land fronting on the Potomac River, and extending from 
Hunting Creek just below the town to Pomit's run near the Little Falls 
above Georgetown. This patent was issued to Robert Howson by Sir 
William Berkeley, Governor of Virginia, in 1669. The same year the title 
was conveyed for the consideration of six hogsheads of tobacco to John 
Alexander. A "tobacco-rolling house," as such warehouses were then called 
in Virginia, was established on the site of the present town of Alexandria, 
then called "Belle Haven." The name of these houses was no doubt sug- 
gested by the method of transporting the hogsheads of tobacco by putting 
a shaft to an axle passed through from end to end of the hogshead, to which 
a horse was harnessed, and then rolling them over the roads on their own 
periphery. Alexandria was incorporated as a town with trustees named in 
the Act in 1748 and its organization effected July 13, 1749. In 1780 it was 
re-organized under a more republican form of government. In 1763 George 
Washington became one of the trustees and served for some years. It 
was here that he often attended church, made his purchases, did his bank- 
ing, mailed and received his letters. The town is full of traditions of his 
interest in the place and in the people. 



124 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

21. At home all day M r . Moylan, 41 Doct r . Craik, & M*. Fitz- 
gerald 42 Bind here. the latter went away. 

22. Doct r . Craik went away after Breakfast, & M r . Moyland 
after Dinner hav g . Rid with to shew Belvoir. 43 

Aug*. 23. At home all day alone. 

24. At home all day alone 

25. Ditto M' 8 . Slaughter 44 dind here 

26. Ditto all day alone. 

27. Went to the Barbacue 45 at Accatinck. 46 

41 Mr. Moylan as no first name is given, or indication as to business or 
residence, the person can not be identified with certainty. He is, however, 
presumed to have been from Philadelphia and one of four brothers ; two, 
John and Stephen, served in the Revolution ; the latter for a time was aid- 
de-camp to Gen. Washington and rose to the rank of a brigadier-general. 
Chastellux, in his travels in America, mentions the family in compli- 
mentary terms. 

42 Col. John Fitzgerald, merchant of Alexandria, was a native of Ireland. 
He was well educated and full of commercial enterprise, stable in his 
purposes and friendships, and fully identified himself with the people of 
the town and surrounding country. He was married to a Miss Digges, 
near Bladensburg. He conducted a large and successful shipping and 
mercantile business and, to the close of his life, deserved and enjoyed the 
confidence of the community. At one time he was mayor of Alexandria. 
He bought large quantities of fish, flour and other products from the Mount 
Vernon estate and shipped them, as opportunity and market offered, to 
other localities. He was a patriot in the Revolution and, for a time, was 
on Gen. Washington's staff, and in this position was in the battles of 
Monmouth and Princeton. (See Recollections of Washington, by Custis, pp. 
190, 192 and 452.) He was on terms of friendly intercourse and correspond- 
ence with A. Lee, R. H. Lee, Robert Morris, George Mason and others. 
He died in Alexandria. 

43 " Belvoir," the residence and estate of the Hon. William Fairfax, was 
situated on the right bank of the Potomac and was described by Wash- 
ington as " within full view of Mount Vernon, is one of the most beautiful 
seats on the river." (Letter to Sir John Sinclair, December 11, 1796.) The 
estate was founded by William Fairfax, cousin and agent of Lord Thomas 
Fairfax, of Green way Court, Virginia. On the death of the proprietor, in 
1757, it descended to his son, Col. George W. Fairfax, who from youth 
was the friend and neighbor of George Washington. In 1773 the colonel 
went to England and, not returning, the place was advertised for rent 
and the furniture was sold. 

44 Mrs. Ann Slaughter, of Fairfax County, Va. 

46 The barbecue feast was a much more popular observance among the 
people in colonial times than at present. The animal selected for such a 
celebration was usually a small-sized bullock, although occasionally the 
pig, bear, deer, or sheep was selected and roasted entire. Such feasts 
were now and then given by societies, political parties, and by individuals 
to popularize some measure or rejoice over a success gained. 

46 Accotink, a hamlet of a few houses, was situated on the left bank of 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S DIARY, 1774 TONER. 125 

28. Went to Pohick Church Mess rs - Stuart, 47 Herbert, 48 
Mease, 49 Doct r - Jenifer 50 M r - Stone 51 & M r - Digges 52 dind here- 
the first three stayed all Mght 

a stream having the same name, which rises near Fairfax Court House 
and empties into Pohick Bay, on the Potomac. The village is mainly 
made up of the mills, a blacksmith's shop, a country store and the few 
dwellings these enterprises inspired. 

47 (David) Stuart was a planter in Fairfax County. Beside the family 
of Stuarts in this county, there was a still more numerous one of Stewarts 
in Prince William County, Va. Dr. David Stuart married Mrs. Eleanor 
"Nelly" (Calvert), widow of John Parke Custis and mother of George 
Washington Parke Custis. In his will, Washington remembers the doctor 
in the following terms: "To David Stuart I give my large Shaving and 
dressing table and my telescope." 

48 William Herbert, a native of Ireland, born 1743, came to America in 
his youth and finally settled in Alexandria, Va., in 1772. He was ener- 
getic and soon became a successful business man and died, regretted, 
February 24, 1818. His correct habits, intelligence and capacity for the 
discharge of business soon placed him among the leading merchants of 
Alexandria. He married the daughter of John Carlyle, esq. In 1798 he 
was advanced to the presidency of the Bank of Alexandria, in which he 
had been a director for years. He was on terms of friendly intercourse 
with Gen. Washington, as were also his wife and children with the entire 
Mount Vernon household. 

49 Mr. Mease was possibly from the valley of Virginia, as Washington, 
when at Berkeley Springs with his family in 1769, bought a horse, saddle 
and bridle from a planter of this name for 21 10., as per cashbook. The 
first name of the gentleman is not given by Washington. 

60 Dr. Daniel Jenifer, son of Daniel and Elizabeth (Hanson) Jenifer, was 
born in Kent County, Md., January 25, 1756, and died 1809. Having 
studied medicine, he settled to practice in St. Marys County. On the 
breaking out of the war of the Revolution he was commissioned a surgeon 
in the Continental Line 26th August, 1776, and served until 1782. He 
ranked as surgeon in the general hospital, and is recorded as a member of 
the Maryland Society of the Cincinnati. In 1785 he married Sarah, daugh- 
ter of Dr. James Craik. They had a number of children. (See Hanson's 
Old Kent.) 

51 Thomas Stone, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born 
at Pointon Manor, Charles County, Md., 1743, and died in Alexandria 
County, Va., October 5, 1787. He was descended, through David, from 
Gov. William Stone, of Maryland, of the Cromwell protectorate period. 
He received a classical education, largely from private teachers, and then 
studied law with Thomas Johnson in Annapolis, Md. He began the prac- 
tice of his profession in Frederick, Md., but in a few years removed to Port 
Tobacco, where he purchased a plantation. He attended the several courts 
from there as business required, was an early and zealous patriot in the 
Revolution. In 1771 he married Margaret, daughter of Dr. Gustavus 
Brown, of Port Tobacco, a lady of superior ability, who died June, 1787. 
Mr. Stone was sent to Congress continuously from 1775 to 1779, and again 



126 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

29. The above Gent n> went away after Breakfast. 

30. Col. Pendleton, 53 MX Henry, 54 Col. Mason 55 & M r . Tho 8 . 
Triplet 56 came in the Evens. & stayd all Night 

31. All the above Gentlemen dind here, after which with 
Col. Pendleton, & M r . Henry I set out on my journey for 
Phil a . 57 & reachd upp r . Marlbro. 58 



in 1783. He was on terms of the most friendly relations with Washington, 
and doubtless often discussed the political situation and needs of the 
country with him. The draft of the plan of the confederation adopted by 
the States was largely from his pen. When not in Congress he was sent to 
the Maryland senate. He was influential in the passage of laws against 
primogeniture in the descent of estates. He was an eloquent speaker 
and a profound lawyer. He left no children. 

52 William Digges, esq., was a wealthy planter on the Potomac, in 
Maryland. His estate, "Warburton," was in full view from the eastern 
portico of Mount Vernon. The plantation included the site of Fort Wash- 
ington, which is nearly due east across the Potomac from the Mount 
Vernon mansion. Mr. Digges, as was the custom with the planters on 
the navigable waters of the Potomac, kept his own boats and trained 
servants, dressed in uniform, accustomed to rowing and sailing them. 
The " Mount Vernon" and " Warburton" estates indulged in this custom; 
intercourse was therefore easy, frequent and friendly between the pro- 
prietors and their families, of which this diary gives abundant evidence. 

63 Col. Edmund Pendleton, statesman, was born in Caroline County, Va., 
September 9. 1721, and died in Richmond, Va., October 23, 1803. His 
grandfather, Philip, came from England to Virginia, in 1676. Edmund 
had in youth but limited educational advantages, but a naturally strong 
and inquisitive mind, with a determined will and love for accurate knowl- 
edge, surmounted these obstacles An effective schooling was afforded 
him in the clerk's office of Caroline County, in which he served for several 
years as the deputy of Benjamin Robinson. In 1744, he was admitted to 
practice law, and from the start attracted attention, not only as a speaker, 
but also for his knowledge of law and of history. He had throughout 
life a wonderful capacity for continued and unremitting attention to busi- 
ness and to study. In 1751, he was made a county justice ; in 1752, elected 
to a seat in the House of Burgesses, and was soon recognized as one of the 
leading members. In 1764, he was placed upon the committee to memori- 
alize the King on the affairs of the Colony. In 1766, as a lawyer, he gave 
the opinion that the Stamp Act was void for want of constitutional 
authority for Parliament to pass it and, therefore, it did not bind the 
inhabitants of Virginia. He was placed in 1773 on the committee of cor- 
respondence of Virginia; made county lieutenant, with the rank of 
colonel in 1774, and the same year was selected by the convention of Vir- 
ginia a delegate to the Continental Congress to be held at Philadelphia, 
Pa., which he attended. In 1775, he was chosen president of the conven- 
tion of Virginia, which met December of that year. In May, 1776, he 
drew up the resolution instructing the Virginia delegates to propose the 
Declaration of Independence. He was at this time president of the Com- 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S DIARY, 1774 TONER. 127 

mittee of Safety. His conduct in every public position was characterized 
by wisdom, moderation and ability. On the organization of the State 
government, he was chosen speaker of the house, and was selected along 
with Chancellor Wythe and Thomas Jefferson to revise the laws of Vir- 
ginia. In 1777, by an unfortunate fall from his horse, he was crippled for 
life. In 1779, he was made president of the Court of Appeals. In 1788, 
he presided at the State convention which adopted the Constitution of 
the United States, which he advocated in a masterly argument. 

64 Patrick Henry, orator and statesman, was born at " Studley," Hanover 
County, Va., May 29, 1736, and died at " Red Hill," Charlotte County, Va., 
June 6, 1799. He was a son of Col. John, of Virginia, and grandson of 
Alexander Henry, of Aberdeen, Scotland. Patrick was mainly educated 
in the classics and mathematics by his father and by private teachers. 
Owing to his father's financial reverses, a college course was not practica- 
ble, and at the age of 15 he began a mercantile career, which, however, 
was not prosperous. He then took seriously to the study of law and was 
married at the age of 18 to a Miss Shelton, whose father kept a public 
house. His practice as a lawyer was for a time limited. In, 1763, he was 
employed in what is historically known as the "Parson's Cause." Before 
the court his force of reasoning and the legal knowledge he evinced, at 
once placed him in the very front rank of his profession. In 1764, he 
removed to Louisa Court House, the better to attend to his duties as a 
lawyer, and the following year was sent to the House of Burgesses. On 
May 29, 1765, nine days after he qualified, he moved a series of resolutions 
defining the rights of the colonies and stigmatizing the Stamp Act as un- 
constitutional and subversive of British and American liberty. This sur- 
prisingly bold step at first confounded both the friends of the Colonies 
and of the Crown and led to much opposition on the part of old leaders. 
However, after a speech of almost inspired eloquence, which was described 
by Thomas Jefferson as surpassing anything he had ever heard, five of his 
resolutions were carried. The whole series was published and speedily 
acquiesced in by the public. After this, the enforcement of the tax bill 
was impracticable and he, at once, became a leader. In May, 1773, he, 
with Thomas Jefferson, Richard Henry Lee and Dabney Carr, carried 
through the House a resolution establishing committees of correspondence 
which gave unity and cohesion to the patriots of the Revolution in all the 
Colonies and led to the Continental Congress of 1774. At the convention 
of Virginia in 1775, he moved that the militia be organized and the colony 
be put in a state of defense. He was at once put at the head of military 
affairs in Virginia and commanded the forces that demanded the return 
of the powder taken from the magazine of Virginia by Governor Dunmore, 
or its payment in money. In the re-organization of the State, in 1776, he 
was chosen governor and was one of the great powers in support of the 
Revolution. He was a member of the convention that adopted the Con- 
stitution of the United States but opposed its acceptance unless amended, 
pointing out its danger and defects with great clearness. Washington 
tendered him the office of Secretary of State, which he declined. He was 
elected to the United States Senate but died before taking his seat. 

65 George Mason, esq., statesman and planter of "Gunston Hall," Fair- 
fax County, Va., was born in 1725, on his father's estate situated in 



128 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 



" Dogue's Neck," known also as " Mason's Neck," then in Stafford County, 
Va., and died at his residence "Guuston Hall," October 7, 1792. His 
education, which was good, was mainly received at home from private 
tutors. He was twice married; first, April, 1750, to Ann, daughter of Col. 
William Eilbeck, of Charles County, Md., by whom he had five sons and 
four daughters ; second to Sarah, daughter of George Brent, of " Wood- 
stock," Va. Shortly after his first marriage he built " Gunston Hall" on 
his paternal landed inheritance. He took an active and interested part in 
church affairs, and in 1765 was elected, together with George Washington, 
a vestryman of Pohick Church. He was a man of good habits, strong mind, 
retentive memory and strict attention to business, with a special aptness 
for system and the formulation of legal documents and bills for enactment 
of laws. In 1769, he drew up the non- importation resolutions which were 
presented by Washington in the Virginia assembly and which were unani- 
mously adopted. One of these pledged the Virginia planters to purchase 
no slaves brought into the country after November 1 of that year. In 
support of the rights of Virginia, Mr. Mason printed a pamphlet with 
the title " Extracts from the Virginia Charter, with some remarks upon 
them." At a meeting of the people of Fairfax County, July 18, 1774, pre- 
sided over by George Washington, he presented a series of twenty-four 
resolutions reviewing the whole ground of controversy between Great 
Britain and the Colonies, recommending a congress of all the Colonies and 
urging non- intercourse with the mother country. Later, the same prin- 
ciples were fully affirmed by the Continental Congress. He declined a 
seat in Congress but served on the Committee of Safety, which was charged 
with the executive government of Virginia. In 1776 he drafted the famous 
bill of rights and also the constitution of Virginia. Madison said that 
Mason was the ablest debater he had ever heard. In 1777, he was elected 
to Congress but declined. Ten years later he was a member of the com- 
mittee that drafted the Constitution of the United States, but did not sign 
it because, as he said, it endangered the sovereignty of the States. He was 
also a member of the committee of the State which adopted the Constitution 
and again opposed its adoption, but without success. He was elected the 
first United States Senator from Virginia, but declined. He was referred 
to by Thomas Jefferson as a man of the first order of wisdom. Certainly 
George Mason deserves to be remembered as one of the purest of patriots 
and wisest of statesmen. 

66 Thomas Triplett, was a planter of Fairfax County, Va. He is believed 
to have been the son of Francis Triplett, a freeholder and voter in Fairfax 
County, in 1748. Thomas had a brother, William ; and possibly, Philip, 
of Fairfax County, was also a brother. Thomas owned the fine plantation 
known as "Round Hill," adjoining Washington's Muddy Hole plantation. 
The Tripletts frequently joined Washington in a fox chase. Thomas Trip- 
lett was one of the vestrymen of Pohick Church, a member of the Masonic 
lodge to which Washington belonged, and attended with the Alexandria 
Washington lodge the funeral of the latter. 

67 Philadelphia, Pa. , because of its central location as to the other col- 
onies, as well as on account of the known advocacy of the rights of the 
provinces by many leading Pennsylvanians in the controversy with the 
Crown, was selected for the meeting of the Continental Congress, which 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S DIARY, 1774 TONER. 129 
Ace* of the Weather 59 in August 

1. Exceding warm. About 4 oclock a fine Shower of Earn, 
with thunder w ch . Coold the air a little 

2. Tolerably pleasant in the forenoon but warm afterwards 
with but little wind 

3. Very warm and clear with but little wind 

4. Again warm with appearances of Bain but none fell. 

5. Warm with moderate Showers in the Afternoon & Xight 

6. Close warm all day with frequent Shower's. 

7. Very hot with a heavy Rain ab*. one oclock still warm 
afterwards 

8. Close & warm with appearances of Eain but none fell. 

9. Earning more or less all the Morning. afternoon warm. 

10. Foggy Morning but no Eain. warm. 

11 th Clear and Warm, with but little Wind & that South- 
erly. 

12. Much such a day as yesterday. 

13. Cool in the Morning, and Evening with the Wind N. 
Easterly with some Eain at Mght. Midday warm 

14. Lowering Morning but clear & very warm afterwards 
with very little Wind 

15. No Wind, but clear & exceeding hot. 

16. Again warm with but little wind in the aftern n . a 
shower or two of Eain 

17. Very warm with Eain at Night. 

18. Again warm with but little Wind & that Southerly 

19. Warm again and clear, after the Morning which was 
lowering with some appearances of Eain. 

20. Very warm with little or no Wind. 

21. Much such a day as the former. 

22. Wind very fresh from the S. West otherwise exceeding 
warm. 



had been resolved upon by the people of the Colonies, and called to meet 
in that city September 5, 1774. 

58 Upper Marlboro is the capital of Prince George County, Md. The 
town is situated on the right bank of the western branch of the Patuxent 
River about 2 miles above the fork and 20 miles southwest of Annapolis, 
on the main road from lower Maryland. 

69 It was Washington's habit for many years to note briefly, in a gen- 
eral way, in his diary, the condition of the weather for each day. The 
comments on the weather, during some years, are made in the same book 
but separately as to heading, thus repeating dates for this purpose in his 
journal of daily events and occurrences as is shown here. 

9 



130 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

23. Lowering in the Morning with fine Showers afterwards 
wind Northerly & a little Cool 

24. Misting all day & sometimes Eain in the Evening a 
settled Eain Wind at N. East but not much of it 

25. Clouds in the Morning, but clear afterwards Wind at 
No. West. 

26. Clear and very pleasant wind at N. West 

27. Pleasant & clear with but little wind 

28. Clear but turning warm wind Southerly 

29. Warm & clear Wind Southerly 

30. Very warm Wind in the same place tho' not much of it 
Aug 1 . 31. Exceeding hot with very little Wind & that South- 
erly. 

Where, how, or with whom, my time is Spent. 

Sept r . 1 Breakfasted at Queen Anne 60 Dined in Anna- 
polis, 61 & lodged at Eock Hall. 62 

2. Din'd at Eock Hall (waiting for my Horses) 63 & lodged at 
New Town 64 on Chester 65 

60 Queen Anne was a crossroad hamlet in Prince George County, Md., 
of colonial days, which did not grow into any importance. It is sit- 
uated near the Patuxent River, on the main road from Georgetown to 
Annapolis, about 25 miles from the former and 10 miles from the latter. 
It appeared in Gary's map of 1822, and possibly later, but is now without a 
post-office or a place on the Gazette. 

61 Annapolis, originally known as Anne Arundel town; later, as ''Port 
of Annapolis," the capital of the State of Maryland since 1694, is situated 
on the Chesapeake Bay, at the mouth of the Severn River. Like its sister 
state capital at Williamsburg, it was early noted for its culture, wealth 
and fashion, and for having established institutions of learning for the 
youth of the provinces. Virginia, to meet the requirements of her settle- 
ments, changed the location of her capital. Maryland has persisted in 
maintaining her old seat notwithstanding the developments of the west 
erly counties. The improved methods of transportation have to some 
extent reconciled her citizens to the location. She has much reason to be 
proud of her history. 

62 " Rock Hall "is situated on the left shore of the Chesapeake Bay, 
between Swan Point and the mouth of Chester River, in Kent County, 
Md. Owing to a protected cove at a favorable landing point, it was 
made the upper or northern terminus of the Annapolis Packet Ferry. 
A fairly good hotel was also kept at the ferry. From here there was a 
well-traveled road through Chestertown, by the head of Sassafras Creek, 
to New Castle, in the State of Delaware. The Rock Hall farm, in 1774, 
was owned by Richard Spencer, who was a grandson of James Spencer, 
of Spencer Hall, on Eastern Neck Island, Kent County, Md. A part 
of Rock Hall was sold to James Ringgold, of Huntingfield, in 1779, with 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S DIARY, 1774 TONER. 131 

3. Breakfasted at Down's 66 . Bind at the Buck Tavern (Car- 
sons) 67 & lodged at Newcastle. 68 

the condition that no other ferry should ever be established to trench 
upon the ground of the existing one. The Rock Hall ferry was main- 
tained up to about 1846, and the old wharves are still visible. 

63 Washington took two horses and a servant with him to Philadelphia 
(see cash look of expenses) ; but he does not give the name of the servant. 

64 New Town, on the Chester, was the original name of the present 
Chestertown. It is 13 miles from Rock Hall. The main road between 
the places is practically on the same site now that it was when traveled 
by Washington. The town was laid out by authority of an act of Mary- 
land, passed in 1706, and was named in the law " New-Town." Its charter 
was revised in 1780, and the name Chestertown given to it. The tavern 
at which Washington and the other delegates who went to the Continental 
Congress stopped in 1774 is still standing. It occupies the corner of Can- 
non and Prince streets, is now owned by Charles T. Westcott, and is 
changed so as to make two private residences. It has undergone some re- 
pairs and the external appearance is slightly altered, but not so the inte- 
rior. The title of the property, in 1774, was in the name of Nathaniel 
Hynson. It was, at the time, a notably fine hotel with a large ballroom, 
elaborately paneled, and with a gallery at one end for musicians. Some of 
the moldings on mantels and casings show traces of fine carving. This is 
the same house in which tradition says Charles Wilson Peale, the artist, 
was born while his father was a teacher in the old free school at Chester- 
town. The town was at that time a port of entry with a custom-house, 
which is still standing. The merchants of the town conducted a very con- 
siderable trade. Private capital aided by the government of Maryland 
conducted a large armory here during the Revolutionary war. 

65 Chester River is a deep, broad, navigable stream, without marshes, 
making up from the eastern shore out of the Chesapeake Bay in a north- 
easterly direction nearly to the dividing line between the States of Mary- 
land and Delaware. This river separates and is the boundary between 
Kent and Queen Anne counties, and is perhaps at present the most noted 
breeding grounds of the famous diamond-backed terrapin. Chestertown, 
situated on the right bank of this river, is the capital of Kent County. 

66 A Mr. Downs was the proprietor of a tavern at Downs' crossroads 
about 16 miles from Newtown, now Chestertown, on the main road to New 
Castle, Del., and Philadelphia. It was near the point now known as 
Galena, near the Sassafras River. The name of Downs is frequently met 
with in the early records of Kent County. The old residents of Galena 
have a tradition that Gen. Washington had, on several occasions, patron- 
ized a public house in that place when passing. 

67 Carson's "Buck Tavern" was probably at a point now the thriving 
village of Middletown in Delaware, and about 18 miles southwest of New 
Castle. 

68 New Castle, in New Castle County, Del., is situated on the right bank 
of the Delaware River, about 6 miles south of Wilmington, and 34 from 
Philadelphia. It is the oldest town on the river, having been founded by 
the Swedes as early as 1627. 



132 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

4. Breakfasted at Christeen Ferry 69 Dined at Chester 70 & 
lodged at Doct r . Shippens's 71 In Phil", after Supping at y e 
New Tavern. 72 



69 Christiana Ferry : It is probable that the site of this ferry is now in- 
cluded within the boundary of the city of Wilmington, Del. 

70 Chester, originally called Upland, is the capital of Delaware County, 
Pa. It is situated on the right bank of the Delaware river, 15 miles be- 
low Philadelphia. The town is an old one and enjoys the distinction of 
having had the first legislature of Pennsylvania to meet in it shortly after 
Wm. Penn's arrival. It has of late years become an important manufac- 
turing center, and is rapidly becoming a sort of annex to the city of Phila- 
delphia. 

71 William Shippen, M. D., the younger, was born in Philadelphia, Octo- 
ber 21, 1736, and died in Germantown, Pa., July 11, 1808. He was a 
graduate of Princeton in 1754, and shortly after began the study of medi- 
cine with his father. He, however, completed his studies under Drs. Wm. 
and John Hunter of London, and at the University of Edinburgh, where 
he graduated M. D. in 1761. Returning to Philadelphia in 1762 he began 
the practice of his profession. November 16, 1762, he opened a systematic 
course of lectures on anatomy, the first in America. They were well pat- 
ronized and pointed the way to the founding of a medical college which, 
in 1765, was engrafted upon the College of Philadelphia. Dr. Shippen was 
elected professor of anatomy and surgery September 23, 1765. He was 
thoroughly American in his principles and a patriot in the Revolution. 
On the 15th of July, 1776, he was appointed chief physician of the Flying 
Camp of the Continental army. On the llth of April he was commissioned 
director-general of all the military hospitals for the armies of the United 
States. Although chosen to this position without a dissenting voice, the 
summary displacement of Surgeon-General John Morgan to give him the 
place, without charge or knowledge of the movement to the incumbent 
aroused suspicion of injustice or at least hasty action on the part of Con- 
gress which, in time, reacted unfavorably to Dr. Shippen, and finally led to 
his resignation January 3, 1781. However, while filling the position, its 
duties were ably performed. On the fusion of the College of Philadelphia 
and the University of Pennsylvania, he was continued a member of the 
faculty until 1806 and remained one of the staff physicians to the Pennsyl- 
vania Hospital until 1802. He was for more than forty years a member of the 
Philosophical Society. His acquaintance with Gen. Washington began in 
1756 and continued cordial and warm to the close of his life. John Adams, 
in his diary of September 20, says Col. R. H. Lee lodged at Dr. Shippen's. 
It may be that Gen. Washington also continued to lodge there throughout 
the sitting of Congress. 

72 "New Tavern" was so named because it was built as recently as 1770, 
but was more properly and generally known as " The City Tavern." It was 
situated on South Second, near Walnut street. For many years it re- 
mained the largest hotel in the city, and the gathering place for the mem- 
bers of the Continental Congress. It was from this house on the 5th of 
September, 1774, says John Adams in his diary, that "At 10 o'clock the 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S DIARY, 1774 TONER. 133 

5. Breakfasted and Dined at Doct r . Shippers Spent y e 
Evens at Tavern 

6. Dined at the New Tavern after being in Congress 73 all 
day. 

7. Dined at M r . Pleasants 74 and spent the Evening in a Club 75 
at the New Tavern. 

delegates all met at the City Tavern, and walked to Carpenter's Hall." 
Within an hour afterwards the First Continental Congress was success- 
fully organized by the selection of Peyton Randolph as president, and 
Charles Thomson as secretary. 

"This was a congress of delegates fresh from the people and untram- 
meled by instructions. The advisableness of a confederated union between 
all the English colonies for their better protection was early felt by the 
leading minds in America. Some such conference and union had been 
recommended in New England as early as 1643 and again by William Penn 
in 1696-'97. In 1698 Charles D' Avenant made similar propositions as did 
others at different dates. Daniel Cox, in 1722, laid his scheme for the set- 
tlement and security of New Jersey and proposed plans for a union. Lord 
Holderness, the English secretary, even went so far in 1753 as to recom- 
mend the assemblies of the several colonies to send committees to a gen- 
eral convention to meet at Albany, N. Y., to confer with each other and to 
renew treaties with the Indians, etc. A convention thus constituted and 
sanctioned by the ministry actually met at Albany on the 19th of June, 
1754. Perhaps the most noteworthy thing that they did, and which was 
not suggested in the call, was the consideration of the importance of a 
permanent union among the colonies and the formulation of a plan by a 
committee of one from each province reported, for a union with a council 
of 48 members, selected from the several colonies, with a president at their 
head, to have the general management of civil and military affairs in. 
America. 

The conception and the bringing into existence of the Continental Con- 
gress in 1774 was almost a spontaneous aspiration and desire of the people 
of the several colonies. It derived its powers and authority directly from the 
people in free hustings, and town mass meetings, despite crown preroga- 
tives, or authority from governors, legislatures, or military commanders. 
A subscription was raised in the Virginia convention to cover the expenses 
of the delegates to be sent to Philadelphia, to which Washington contrib- 
uted 100. It is possible that this was returned, as the expenses of the 
delegates were assumed by the assembly of Virginia. Before adjourning 
the convention they provided for another Congress to meet in May, 1775. 
The future Congress was to be composed of delegates from the provincial 
assemblies, and not directly from the people as was the first. 

74 Samuel Pleasants, a relative of the well-known Pleasants family of 
Virginia, who was in religious belief of the Society of Friends. A son of 
Samuel Pleasants, of the same name, removed to Richmond, Va., and for 
some years published there a newspaper called The Argus. His descendants 
still reside in Richmond. 



134 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

8. Dined at M r . And w . Allan's, 76 & spent the Evening in 
my own Lodgings 77 

9. Dined at M r . Tilghman's 78 & spent the Evening at home 
(at my Lodge). 

75 In the early times in America a club or company was frequently im- 
provised on short notice, by individuals brought together at ordinaries, 
taverns and coffee houses for a dinner, a supper, or a bowl of punch. It 
is understood that the term was also applied to a mixed drink, furnished 
in a large bowl which was denominated "The Club" by the assembly, 
whether paid for by one or jointly, by the several persons partaking, 
whether present by accident or by invitation. It is, however, not en- 
tirely clear to the writer whether any of these definitions explains the 
significance of the term "the governor's club," who, it is inferred, did 
not even sympathize with the Continental Congress, and what its ex- 
istence portended. 

76 Andrew Allan, esq., an eminent lawyer of Philadelphia, was born in 
that city in 1740, and died in London, England, March 7, 1825. He was 
the son of Chief-Justice Allan. After receiving a superior education he 
studied law with his father and entered upon a good practice in his native 
city. In 1776 he was appointed attorney -general of Pennsylvania. His 
intelligence and progressive spirit placed him among the foremost citizens 
in every enterprise, and when a committee of safety in Philadelphia was 
chosen, he was among the members. He was one of three appointed by 
the colony to go to New York and advise with the committee of safety in 
that colony and with Gen. Lee in regard to the defense of that city. 
He was apparently a strong advocate of all the Congressional measures 
until the British army possessed themselves of the city of New York. 
Then he lost courage, entered the British lines, took the oath of allegiance 
to the King, renouncing those he had taken to Congress, and went to 
England. His property in Pennsylvania was confiscated, but he was 
compensated for his loyalty to the crown and his losses in America by 
grants from the British Government and an annual pension of 400. 

77 It is quite possible that Washington may have secured lodging 
elsewhere after a stay of a few days with his friend Dr. Shippen. If this 
surmise be correct, the diary does not disclose where or with whom he se- 
cured apartments. Adams, in his diary, says Lee lodged at Shippen's, 
which gives color to the possibility that Washington also continued at Dr. 
Shippen's, and may have paid for his accommodations. As the term 
lodging is used, it implies a hired room. 

78 James Tilghman, secretary of the land office of Pennsylvania, 1765- 
1775, was born at the Hermitage, the family seat, in Queen Anne County, 
Md., December 6, 1716, and died in Chestertown, Md., August 24, 1793. 
After receiving a classical education he studied law and for a time prac- 
ticed at the Annapolis bar, but in 1760 he removed to Philadelphia, Pa., 
to practice his profession. In 1765 John Penn, governor of Pennsylvania, 
appointed him secretary of the land office, with a salary of 300 and some 
office fees; he held this position down to the Revolution. In 1767 he be- 
came a member of the Provincial Council, serving until the exigencies of 
the Revolution prevented the Council sitting. At first he was liberal in 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S DIARY, 1774 TONER. 135 

10. Dined at M r . Rich d . Penn's 79 

11. Dined at M r . Griffen's 80 

12. Dined at M r . James Allan's 81 

his views of the political questions discussed between the British Govern- 
ment and the colonies, but finally came to be regarded as a loyalist. 
On the approach of the British army to Philadelphia, in 1777, he was ar- 
rested and paroled with leave to visit his friends in Maryland and to re- 
port in Philadelphia by a certain date. Before the time elapsed the city 
was in the possession of the British. In May, 1778, he was discharged 
from parole. Washington and the whole family of Tilghmans were on 
terms of friendship. 

79 Richard Penn, lieutenant-governor of Pennsylvania, was born in Eng- 
land 1735, and died there May 27, 1811. He was a student for some time at 
St. John's College, Cambridge, entering for the legal profession, but did 
attain to any degrees. In 1763 he came to Pennsylvania with his brother 
John, and January 12, 1764, qualified as a councilor. He revisited Eng- 
land for a couple of years, and was while there appointed by his uncle and 
brother lieutenant-governor, returning the second time October 16, 1771. 
By his liberal course and attention to duty he became very popular with 
all the business interests of this colony. He and his brother John had a 
dispute as to the construction of his father's will. In 1773 he was super- 
seded in office by John Penn. Both the Penns favored concessions from 
the British Government, as relating to the oppressive acts complained 
of by the colonies, and joined in the petition of 1775 to the King, which 
Mr. R. Penn carried with him to England. He was examined by the 
House of Lords November 7, 1775, and gave testimony that he believed 
the colonies would resist the home Government by force unless an accom- 
modation should be reached. He was later a member of Parliament from 
1796 to 1806. He married a Miss Mary Masters, an heiress of Pennsylva- 
nia. In advanced life, however, he became very poor. He revisited Penn- 
sylvania in 1808 for the last time. 

o Griffen. No data. 

81 James Allan, esq., of Philadelphia, Pa., the third son of Chief Justice 
William Allan of Pennsylvania, was born in that State 1742, and died 1798. 
James graduated from the College of Pennsylvania in 1759, after which he 
studied law with Edward Shippen, and then spent three years at the Tem- 
ple, in London. Returning to Philadelphia he began to practice at the 
bar, and was, in 1767, elected a member of common council. In 1776 he was 
sent to the State assembly from Northampton County. James Allan be- 
gan a diary in 1776, which he continued, with but few interruptions, to 
the time of his death, in 1798. He married, in 1768, Elizabeth, only child of 
John Lawrence. His diary referred to may be seen in Vol. LX of the 
Pennsylvania Magazine of History. Under date of May 19, 1773, we find 
the following entry : " Gov. Eden and Col. Washington are in town, come to 
the races. Water's horse, Herod, won the 100 yesterday & Mr. Delaney's 
Sultana 50 today. The town is very gay & invitations frequent. I asked 
Gov. Eden and Col. Washington to dinner, but they are engaged during their 
stay." Governor owned one of the horses that ran the first day of the races. 
It, however, came in second. The winning horse was owned by Israel 
Waters, and was known by the name of "King Herod." 



136 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

13. Dined at M r . Tho 8 . Mifflin's 82 

Sep r . 14. Eid over the Provence Island. 83 & dind at M r . W m . 
Hamiltons 84 

83 Thomas Mifflin, major-general in the Revolution, was born in Philadel- 
phia in 1744, and died in Lancaster, Pa., January 20, 1800. He was a grad- 
uate of the College of Philadelphia in 1750. Shortly after that he entered 
a counting house in which his brother was a partner. In 1765 he traveled 
in Europe, and on his return was taken into the firm. He had a popular 
manner, with a taste for public life, and in 1772 he was sent to the legis- 
lature. In 1774 he was a delegate to the Continental Congress. On the 
receipt of the news of the fight at Lexington in a town mass meeting he 
publicly advocated resolute action. When troops were enlisted, he assisted 
in organizing and drilling them, and was made major of the First Regi- 
ment. He was born and reared a Quaker, and, of course, this conduct sev- 
ered his church connection. Washington, on assuming command of the 
Continental army, chose him as his first aide-de-camp, and in that rank he 
accompanied the General to Cambridge. In July, 1775, he was made 
quartermaster-general. After the evacuation of Boston, by the British, he 
was made, August 19, 1776, a brigadier-general, and assigned to the com- 
mand of a part of the Pennsylvania troops. He was a man of prompt 
action, courage and perseverance. In the retreat from Long Island he 
commanded the rear guard. Later, in compliance to the resolutions of 
Congress, he resumed the duties of quartermaster-general. In November 
he was sent by Washington to Congress to represent the critical condition 
of the army. In January, 1777, he made a tour of the principal towns of 
Pennsylvania, and by his stirring oratory aroused a spirit among the peo- 
ple to enter the army. For a time he shared the feeling that Washington 
was too slow. In 1777 he was placed by Congress on the Board of War, 
but was retired in 1778. It was charged that the suffering at Valley 
Forge was aggravated by the inefficiency of the Quartermaster's Depart- 
ment, but this lacked proof. After the achievement of independence he 
entered Congress, and was president of that body when Washington re- 
signed his commission, and replied to him in appropriate and eloquent 
terms. In 1787 he was a member of the convention that drafted the Con- 
stitution of the United States. In 1789 he was elected a member of the 
supreme executive council of Pennsylvania, and succeeded to its presi- 
dency. When the constitution of Pennsylvania was adopted, he was 
elected her first governor under it. 

83 Province Island was once known as " Fishers Island." It contained 
342 acres, and was, on account of its isolation, convenience and suitable- 
ness for a quarantine hospital and pest-house purposes, bought by the 
province of Pennsylvania in 1742 for the sum of 1,700. The island is on 
the southwest side of the Schuylkill River, near its mouth. After this 
purchase the island was known as " Provence Island/' but since the Rev- 
olution and the adoption of the State constitution, it has been named 
as " State Island." The purpose of Washington's visit is not disclosed; 
whether it was to see the buildings erected by the province for the care 
of the sick of contagious diseases, arriving by sea, or whether it was to 
inspect the gardens and farming conducted there on the part of the island 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S DIARY, 1774 TONER. 137 

15. Dined at my Lodgings 

16. Dined at the State House 85 at an Entertainment given 
by the City to the Members of the Congress. 

17. Dined at M r . Dickinsons 86 about 2 Miles from Town 

not then required for hospital purposes, and which was rented and culti- 
vated as a truck garden, is left to speculation. 

84 William Hamilton, esq., of Philadelphia, was the son of the second 
Andrew Hamilton, and inherited from him "The Woodlands," on the 
Schuylkill, now West Philadelphia. He was a man of large wealth in 
well-located real estate near the cities of Lancaster and Philadelphia. He 
was a man of cultivated tastes, fond of botany, and took pleasure in orna- 
mental gardening. He built himself an elegant residence shortly before 
the Revolution. He was one of the earliest patrons of art in the country, 
and collected many fine pictures. During the progress of the Revolution 
he was suspected of having become inimical to the cause of the colonies, 
and was arrested and tried, but acquitted. He died at "The Woodlands" 
in 1824. His highly cultivated and beautiful farm greatly interested 
Washington. He never married. 

88 The "State House," now more widely known as "Independence Hall," 
is owned by the corporation of the city of Philadelphia, and is one of the 
most revered Colonial landmarks in our country. It was designed on a 
liberal scale, its erection begun in 1729, and completed in 1735. When 
this enterprise was projected only about half the square the Chestnut 
street front had been secured to the province, but in 1750 the remainder 
of the square fronting on Walnut street was bought. The building was at 
first used for the various offices of the Government, but from 1747 it was 
used also for the meetings of the State assembly, until the capital of Penn- 
sylvania was established at Harrisburg (1812). In 1816 the legislature 
of Pennsylvania authorized the sale of the State House and the square 
of ground to the city corporation of Philadelphia for public purposes 
for $70,000. It is inferred that, even prior to this, either the city, or her 
influential citizens, had some voice in the control and use to which the 
building might at times be put, from the fact that public dinners had been 
given in it by the city to the members of this Congress. But it had also 
been used by the Provincial Government to give banquets in on special 
occasions, prior to this instance. In 1746 Governor Thomas gave a dinner 
in it to 200 persons on the occasion of the news of the Pretender's defeat. 
In 1752 Governor Hamilton gave a ball in the State House and a supper 
in the long gallery. Governor Morris, in 1754, had at the State House a 
ball in the evening and a supper in the long gallery. So that there were 
many precedents for this courtesy to the members of Congress. 

86 John Dickinson, statesman, was born in Maryland November 13, 1732, 
and died in Wilmington, Del., February 14, 1808. He was the son of 
Samuel Dickinson, who removed from Maryland to Delaware and became 
a chief justice of Kent County in that State, dying there in 1760, aged 71. 
John, after receiving a classical education at the Friends Academy, 
studied law with John Moland, esq., in Philadelphia, and then for three 
years at the Temple, in London ; returning to Philadelphia, he was admit- 
ted to the bar and practiced with success. In 1764 he was sent to the 



138 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

18. Dined at M r . Hills 87 about 6 Miles from Town. 

19. Eid out in the Morning dined at M r . Boss's 88 

Pennsylvania assembly, and in 1765 to the Colonial Congress which met 
in New York. This year he began to write against the Colonial policy of 
the British Government. His celebrated "Farmer's Letters" appeared in 
1767. He was chosen a member of the first Continental Congress, which 
met in Philadelphia in 1774, while that body was in session. It was gen- 
erally understood that he was the author of several of the State papers 
issued by that body, among which was the "Address to the inhabitants of 
Quebeck," the first petition to the King, etc., the "Address to the Armies," 
etc. In June, 1776, he opposed the adoption of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, because he doubted the wisdom of the measure until terms of 
confederation and foreign assistance were assured. When the proposition 
came up for a vote he absented himself; but he proved his patriotism by 
enlisting as a private in the Army and serving until the end of his enlist- 
ment. He again served in the Army in 1777, and in October of that year 
was commissioned brigadier-general. In 1779, he was elected to Congress 
from Delaware, and in May wrote an "Address to the States." In 1780, 
he was elected a member of the Delaware assembly, and the following year 
was chosen president of the State. From 1782 to 1785 he filled the same 
office in Pennsylvania, and in 1787 served as a member of the convention 
from Delaware that framed the Federal Constitution. In 1788 he wrote 
nine letters under the signature of " Fabius," in favor of the Constitution. 
In 1797 he wrote a series of fourteen letters to promote a friendly feeling 
toward France. In 1783 he was largely influential in founding and endow- 
ing Dickinson College, at Carlisle, Pa. He was a profound scholar in 
political science and a fervid and logical writer. In 1770 he married Mary 
Norris, of "Fair Hill," at which place he resided when Washington visited 
him. He was a liberal entertainer, and his society was courted by the 
leading patriots of his day. 

87 Mr. Hill resided 6 miles from the city of Philadelphia. His wife was 
the daughter of Mr. Samuel Meredith. 

88 John Ross, lawyer and merchant, of Philadelphia, Pa., was born in Coun- 
ty Ross, Scotland, January 29, 1725, and died in Philadelphia, Pa., in March, 
1800. In his youth he was placed in a commercial house in Perth, Scotland, 
where he acquired a good knowledge of business. He came to Philadel- 
phia in 1763, well versed in the best methods for the transaction of an ex- 
tensive commercial business, and became a shipping merchant and an im- 
porting agent. At the very beginning of the difficulties with the mother 
country he aligned himself with the friends of the Colonies, and was a 
signer of the non-importation agreement of 1765. He presided at a public 
meeting of the mechanics and traders, June 9, 1774, to consider a letter 
from the artificers of New York, and was on the committee to reply to the 
same. He was shortly after appointed master of musters in the Pennsyl- 
vania navy, September 16, 1775, which office he resigned, 1776, on account 

. of his own private business. In May, 1776, he was employed by the Com- 
mittee of Commerce in Congress to purchase clothes, arms and powder 
for the use of the Army. To engage proper agents in France and elsewhere 
he went to Europe in 1776, and at other times. In his zeal during the pro- 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S DIARY, 1774 TONER. 139 

20. Dinexi with M r . Fisher the Mayor. 89 

21. Dined with M r . James Mease 90 

22. Dined with M r . Chew the Chief Justice. 91 

gress of the war, lie pledged his credit for 20,000 more than was supplied 
to him by Congress, much to his embarrassment and subsequent loss. He 
was intelligent aud cordial in his disposition, and on terms of intimacy 
with Franklin, Robert Morris and the leading political characters of the 
times. Washington's diary shows that he visited and dined at his country 
place, "The Grange, " on several occasions. 

89 W. Fisher was mayor of Philadelphia, 1772-'74 

90 John Mease, instead of James, it is surmised, was the gentleman with 
whom Gen. Washington dined. If this be the case, he was born in Straban, 
Ireland, in 1746. He was a zealous patriot and died in Philadelphia in 
1826. He was brought to America in 1754, grew with Philadelphia, and 
became one of her most prominent shipping merchants. He was one of 
the organizers and original members of the first troop of city cavalry, 
one of the corps that crossed the Delaware under Gen. Washington, on 
December 25, 1779, and was one of five who were detailed to keep alive, the 
camp fires on the line fronting the Army to cover any suspicion of a move- 
ment, while the Americans marched to attack the rear guard of the British, 
at Princeton. Mease served during the entire war, suffering thereby great 
loss of property. In 1780, when the Government was* in great strait to 
support the Army, he subscribed 4,000. He was one of the admiralty 
surveyors of the Port of Philadelphia. 

91 Benjamin Chew, jurist, was born at West River, Anne Arundel 
County, Md., November 29, 1722, and died in Philadelphia, January 20, 
1810. He was the son of the Quaker judge, Samuel Chew, chief justice 
of New Castle, Del. Benjamin studied law with Andrew Hamilton, of 
Philadelphia, and later at the Temple, in London. Returning to Delaware, 
he was admitted to the bar in 1743, and in 1745 removed to the city of 
Philadelphia. In 1755 he was made receiver and served until 1772. He also 
held the office of register of wills and attorney-general, which he resigned in 
1766. In 1774 he became chief j ustice of Pennsylvania. He was for several 
years speaker of the house of delegates for the three lower counties in Dela- 
ware. At the opening of the Revolution, both parties claimed him, but 
after the Declaration of Independence, he openly opposed the Patriots, 
and declining to give a parole in 1777, was sent to prison at Fredericks- 
burg, Va. He, however, never appears to have given aid to the enemy. 
In 1790 he was appointed chief justice of the high court of errors and ap- 
peals of Pennsylvania, which he held until 1806, when the court was abol- 
ished. His stone house at Germantown became historic by its position on 
the field of the battle of Germantown in 1777. He was twice married; 
first to Mary, daughter of Samuel Galloway, of Maryland; second, to a 
daughter of Mr. Oswold. He entertained sumptuously in 1774 at his house 
in Third street, Philadelphia. The friendly intercourse between him and 
Washington was continued after the Revolution. Of this dinner at Mr. 
Chew's, John Adams in his diary has the following record : " Dined with 
Mr. Chew, chief justice of the provinces, with all the gentlemen from Vir- 
ginia, Dr. Shippen, Mr. Tilghman, and many others. We were shown into 



140 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

23. Dined with M r . Joseph Pemberton. 92 

24. Dined with M r . Tho 8 . Willing 93 and spent y e Even* at y 
City Tavern 

Sept r . 25. Went to the Quaker Meeting 94 in the Forenoon 
& S*. Peters 95 in the Afternoon Din'd at my lodgings 

a grand entry and staircase, and into an elegant and most magnificent 
chamber, until dinner. About four o'clock we were called down to din- 
ner. The furniture was all rich. Turtle and every other thing, flum- 
mery, jellies, sweetmeats, of twenty sorts, trifles, whipped syllabubs, 
floating islands, fools, &c., and then a dessert of fruits, almonds, pears, 
peaches. Wines most excellent and admirable. I drank Madeira at a 
great rate, and found no inconvenience." 

92 Joseph Pemberton, a prominent member of the Society of Friends. 

^Thomas Willing, lawyer and merchant, was born in Philadelphia 
December 19, 1731, and died there January 19, 1821. He was well educated 
in England and studied law at the Temple, London. In 1764 he became 
the head of the firm of Willing & Norris, the largest and most enterprising 
then in our country. This partnership continued until 1793. During the 
Revolution the firm was the agents of Congress for supplying naval and 
military stores. In 1755 Mr. Willing served as a member of the common 
council of Philadelphia, and in 1759 was an alderman, but did not accept 
until October, 1760. He was made, in 1761, an associate justice of Common 
Pleas, Quarter Session, and Orphans' Court. In 1763 he was elected by the 
common council mayor of the city. From 1767 to 1774 he was associate 
justice of the Supreme Court. He was a leader in opposition to the " Stamp 
Act " and one of the committee to enforce the non-importation agreement 
of 1765. June, 1774, he presided at a mass meeting to take action on the 
question of a general congress of all the colonies and was on the commit- 
tee of correspondence. July 15, 1774, he presided at a patriotic meet- 
ing at Carpenter's Hall. He was placed on the committee of safety, and 
in 1775 was elected to the assembly on the " Moderate Men's" ticket, and 
the following year was elected a member of Congress to succeed Joseph 
Galloway. In Congress he voted against Richard Henry Lee's prelimi- 
nary resolutions and the Declaration of Independence, because he deemed 
this action on the part of Congress unnecessary and premature. When 
the British took possession of Philadelphia, he remained during their oc- 
cupation and held conference with Lord Howe. Later and at a critical 
period, in 1780, he, with other wealthy citizens of Philadelphia, subscribed 
260,000 towards the foundation of the Pennsylvania Bank and to pro- 
cure the necessary supplies for the Army. His own subscription to the 
fund was 5,000. In 1781, on the formation of the Bank of North America, 
he was chosen its president and continued to serve until 1792. He was 
also the first president of the Bank of the United States, established in 
1791. He was in all his business relations a man of clear perceptions, 
great energy and high integrity. 

94 Quaker meeting or Friends' house of worship stood at the southwest 
corner of Second and High streets. It was built in 1695, on ground 
given to the Society for the purpose, by George Fox, the founder of the 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S DIARY, 1774 TONER. 141 

26. Dined at the old Doct r . Shippens 96 & went to the Hos- 
pital 9T 

27. Dined at the Tavern with the Virg a . Gent u . 98 &c a . 

28. Dined at M r . Edward Shippens " spent the aftern n . 
with the Boston Geut n . 100 

" Society of Friends." In the progress of time, the first structure prov- 
ing too small to accommodate the members, it was taken down, and in 
1755 a larger one erected on the site. The new "meeting house" was 
often spoken of as "the great meeting house." It is most probable that 
this was the one visited by Washington. 

96 St. Peter's Episcopal church is at the southwest corner of Third and 
Pine streets. It was originally a branch or offshoot from Christ church, 
Philadelphia, and for some years was under the charge of the Rev. Jacob 
Duche", the brilliant parson who, in a persuasive letter to Gen. Washing- 
ton, endeavored to convince him that it was a Christian and patriotic duty 
for him to abandon the American armed contest with Great Britain. 

96 William Shippen, sr., physician, was born in Philadelphia, October 1, 
1712, and died at German town, November 4, 1801. He was the son of Joseph 
and grandson of Edward Shippen, who was mayor of Philadelphia in 1701. 
William, early in life, applied himself to the study of medicine, for the 
practice of which he developed a great aptitude, to the benefit of the com- 
munity in which he lived and by which he acquired fame and fortune. 
While devoted to his profession, he was public spirited and closely iden- 
tified himself with the founding of several of the worthy institutions 
which have made Philadelphia so notable among the cities of our coun- 
try. His assistance and influence in the organization of the Pennsylvania 
Hospital was great, and he labored as an attending physician in it until 
1787. He was on the first board of trustees of the College of Philadel- 
phia, now the University of Pennsylvania. He was a member of the 
American Philosophical Society and one of its esteemed vice-presidents. 
He was for nearly 60 years a member of the Second Presbyterian Church of 
Philadelphia, and for half this time a trustee of Princeton College. In 
1778 he was chosen by the Pennsylvania assembly a member of the Conti- 
nental Congress, aud was reflected in 1779. Through the inheritance of 
a good constitution, his regular and correct habits, he maintained, to an 
advanced age, a remarkable degree of physical vigor. 

^Pennsylvania Hospital was founded on the square between Eighth and 
Ninth and Spruce and Pine streets. The cornerstone of the main building 
was laid in 1755. It was practically the pioneer hospital of any great 
pretentions in the colonies, and had the effect of centering in Philadel- 
phia the leading medical schools of the country for more than a century. 

98 The Virginia delegates to the first Continental Congress, which met in 
Philadelphia September 5, 1774, were, doubtless, the gentlemen referred 
to. They were the Hon. Peyton Randolph, Richard Henry Lee, esq., 
Col. George Washington, Richard Bland, esq., Benjamin Harrison, esq., 
and Edmund Pendleton, esq. 

99 Edward Shippen, esq., was the second son of Edward, an eminent 
jurist of Philadelphia. He was born in that city February 16, 1729, and 



142 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

29. Dined at M r . Allan's and went to the Ball in the 
aftern n . lnl 

30. Dined at Doct r . Cadwalladers. 102 

An Ace*, of the Weather in Sept r . 

Sep r . 1 Exceeding Hot, with but little wind from the South- 
ward In the Night Eain (where I was) 

died there April 16, 1806. He read law with Tench Francis, and going to 
England continued the study at the Middle Temple in London. Return- 
ing to America, he entered upon this practice in his native city. On the 
22d of November, 1752, he was appointed judge of the Vice Admiralty 
Court, and in 1762 was made prothonotary of the Supreme Court of Penn- 
sylvania, which office he held down to the Revolution. He became a mem- 
ber of the Provincial Council jn 1770 and served continuously for five 
years. His sympathies in the Colonial struggle for independence was, 
doubtless, with the mother country. He was, however, a man of such high 
character that his parole was taken by the Government to give neither 
succor nor information to the enemy. He remained in Philadelphia during 
its occupancy by the British army, but his prudence was such as to avoid 
giving offense. His popularity may be inferred by the fact that in 1784 he 
was appointed presiding judge of the court of Common Pleas, and in Sep- 
tember of the same year one of the judges of the High Court of Errors and 
Appeals, which office he retained until 1799. Besides these official positions 
he held others of a judicial character, discharging all trusts with ability, 
including that of Chief Justice of Pennsylvania. A fine portrait of 
Judge Shippen hangs in the "Corcoran Art Gallery" in Washington, 
D. C. His daughter Margaret married Benedict Arnold and died in Lon- 
don in 1804. 

100 " Boston Gentlemen" refers, doubtless, to the members from Massa- 
chusetts of the Continental Congress. Those in attendance from that 
State in 1774 were all from the city of Boston or its vicinity, namely, John 
Adams, Samuel Adams, Thomas Gushing, and Robert Treat Paine. John 
Adams, in his diary, under this date, made the following entry: "Spent 
the evening at home with Col. Lee and Col. Washington, and Dr. Shippen, 
who came in to consult with us." John Hancock's first appearance was 
in the Second Congress, which met May, 1775. 

101 Balls and assemblies for dancing have been popular social institu- 
tions from remote times, and in our Colonial days were especially so in the 
larger towns and particularly at the seats of Government. It is presumed 
that the dance and the high social characters who patronize well-regu- 
lated balls will, everywhere and in all ages, give them a charm for cultivated 
society. It will be seen by this reference that the ball was opened in the 
afternoon, which was a usual practice before the Revolution. 

108 Dr. Thomas Cadwallader was born in Philadelphia in 1707 and died 
in that city in 1779. He studied medicine with Dr. John Jones, then re- 
siding in Philadelphia. For the further pursuance of medical knowledge 
he went to London and Edinburgh for their college and hospital advan- 
tages. Returning to America, he began to practice in his native city. On 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S DIARY, 1774 TONER. 143 

2. Again very warm with but little wind & that Southerly 
In the Night Eain 

3. Cloudy & Cool, wind fresh from the Northward. 
4 Again Cloudy & Cool Wind about N. East & fresh. 

5. Cloudy all day & now and then Misting Wind at N. 
E'. 

6. Clear & pleasant with but little Wind 

7. Clear and Warm with but little wind & that Southerly 

8. Again Warm & clear, wind in the same place. 

9. Warm & close, weather lowering, & in the afternoon Bain, 
tho little of it 

10 Clear & cool, Wind Westwardly & tolerably fresh. 

11 Pleasant, but growing warmer, there being but little 
wind 

12. Warmer than yesterday and clear. 
Sep r . 13 th . lowering most part of the day with a little Eain 
in the Evening. 

14. Wind a little fresh from the Northward & day clear & 
somewhat Cooler 

15. A little lowering & dull in the forenoon but cool 

16. Eather warm being clear with little wind 

17. Warm & clear with but little wind & that Southerly 

18. Warm in the forenoon with a brisk Southwest wind in 
the afternoon Eain. 

19. Pleasant, and clear with but little Wind 

20. Very pleasant and clear as also a little Cool. 

21. Much such a day as yesterday. 

22. Ditto Ditto. 

Sep r . 23 Clear but Pleas*, and Cool. Wind Northerly 

the opening of the Pennsylvania Hospital, he was chosen one of the attend- 
ing physicians, and was retaine J upon its staff until his death. He studied 
anatomy under the eminent Prof. Cheseldon, attained a high degree of 
proficiency in dissection, and made some demonstrations on the subject for 
the elder Dr. Shippen, and for the benefit of other physicians who had not 
had the advantages that the schools of Europe afforded. He was an influ- 
ential member of the American Philosophical Society and of the College 
of Philadelphia. As early as 1745 he published an " Essay on the Iliac 
Passion," and contributed to the press other articles of value on medical 
subjects. He was gentle in his manners, attentive to his patients, enjoyed 
to an exceptional degree the confidence and respect of the community, and 
was noted for benevolence and his cheerful disposition. In 1765 he was 
appointed to the Provincial Council, and held numerous positions of honor 
and trust. 



144 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

24. Clear and pleasant but somewhat cool wind in tne same 
Quarter 

25. Very pleasant and somewhat, there being no Wind 

26. Clear and pleasant but rather warm there being no Wind 

27. Again clear and warm with but little or no wind 

28. Very warm foggy in the Morning but clear after* 8 

29. Very warm again, being clear with no wind. 

30. Still warm with some appearances of Rain 

Where, how, or with whom my time is Spent. 

Oct r . 1 st . At y 6 Congress till 3 ocl : Din'd with M r . Ham- 
ilton 103 at Bush Hill. 
2. Went to Christ Church 104 & dined at y e New Tavern. 

103 James Hamilton, esqr., of "Bush Hill," Philadelphia, was the son of 
Andrew Hamilton, the eminent lawyer who won fame with the friends of 
liberty and of free speech in America, by the defense of John Peter Zenger, 
the printer, in New York in 1735. James was born about 1710, it is sup- 
posed, in Accomac County, Va., and died in the city of New York, August 
14, 1783. He was a man of good habits, well educated, and attentive to 
business. He was elected to the provincial assembly in 1754, and re- 
elected for five successive terms. On the retirement of his father as pro- 
thonotary of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, he was appointed to 
that office. In 1765 he was elected mayor of Philadelphia, and on retiring 
from that position, set the example, which was followed, that instead of 
giving a banquet, as had been the custom of his predecessors, he con- 
tributed 150 to a fund for erecting needed public buildings. This prece- 
dent was followed by his successors for many years. At the death of his 
father, he came into the possession of a very handsome estate which included 
"Bush Hill," where he resided. In 1746 he became a member of the Pro- 
vincial Council, and in 1748, while in London, was commissioned the 
first native lieutenant-governor of Pennsylvania, by the sons of William 
Penn. He resigned this office in 1754, to the regret of the leading citizens, 
but was induced in 1759 to resume the office, which he filled acceptably 
until 1763, when he retired. Again on the retirement of John Penn, he 
administered the government as provost of the council, until the arrival 
of Richard Penn in 1771. In 1773, he was for a brief period at the head of 
the Government. He had been so much in the service of the Crown, that 
it is not strange he should have found it difficult to adopt the extreme 
views of the Colonies and be prepared to take up arms against the mother 
country. Although prudent in his conduct, in 1777 he was arrested, but 
paroled. He resided at Northampton during the occupation of Philadel- 
phia by the British army. He has left a good record in his efforts to found 
some of the benevolent institutions of Philadelphia. He was an active 
and useful member of the American Philosophical Society, and of the 
Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 

104 Christ Church was the earliest Episcopal organization formed in Phil- 
adelphia. The society erected, in 1695, a small wooden building on Second 



GEOEGE WASHINGTON'S DIARY, 1774 TONER. 145 

3. At Congress till 3 oclock. Dined at M r . Eeeds. 105 

4. At Congress till 3 Oclock dined at young Doct r . Shippens 

5. At Congress as above, Dined at Doct r . Bonds 106 

street, between Market and Arch streets. The structure was enlarged at 
different times, and was finally, about 1755, entirely rebuilt. The service 
Washington attended was in the handsome new structure. John Adams, 
in his diary under this date, says : " Went to Christ Church and heard Mr. 
Combe upon ' Judge not according to the appearance, but judge righteous 
judgment.' " 

105 Joseph Reed, esq., was born at Trenton, N. J., August 27, 1741, and 
died in Philadelphia, March 5, 1785. He was a graduate of Princeton 
College in 1757, after which he studied law with Robert Stockton, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1763. He then went to Europe and spent two 
years at the Middle Temple in London. Returning, he began the practice 
of his profession at Trenton, and in 1767 was appointed deputy secretary 
of New Jersey. In 1770 he returned to England and there married 
Esther, daughter of Dennis De Berdt, the agent of Massachusetts in Great 
Britain. On his return to America, he settled in Philadelphia, and there 
pursued the practice of law with success. In all the early movements in 
the Colonies, which led up to the armed collision between them and Great 
Britain, he was an active and intelligent friend of America. In 1774 he 
was appointed a member of the committee of correspondence, and in 
January, 1775, was chosen president of the Second Provincial Congress. 
On the formation of the Pennsylvania associated militia, after the news 
of the battle of Lexington, he was chosen lieutenant-colonel of a regiment. 
When Washington was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the American 
forces, he accepted the position of military secretary to him, and, leaving 
his practice, he accompanied the general to Boston. In October, 1775, 
with the approval of Washington, he returned to Philadelphia, and in 
January, 1776, was chosen a member of the Assembly, and was acting 
chairman of the committee of safety. On June 5, he was appointed 
Adjutant- General of the American Army with, the rank of colonel, and 
was active in the campaign that terminated with the battle of Long 
Island. In 1777, on the recommendation of Washington, he was ap- 
pointed a brigadier-general and tendered the command of all the Conti- 
nental cavalry, which he declined. March 20, 1777, he was appointed 
chief justice of Pennsylvania, which he also declined and remained at- 
tached to General Washington's headquarters as a volunteer aid, without 
rank or pay, serving with credit at Brandywine, Germantown and 
Monmouth. In this year he was elected to the Continental Congress. 
In 1778 he was chosen president of the supreme executive council of 
Pennsylvania, which office he held for three yqars. He exposed an attempt 
of the British to bribe him with a large sum of money. 

106 Dr. Thomas Bond was born near Annapolis, Md., in 1712, and died in 
Philadelphia, 1784. After acquiring a classical education, chiefly from pri- 
vate tutors, he began the study of medicine with Dr. Hamilton, of Annap- 
olis j after a thorough office training, he went to Europe and took a special 
course in the hospitals of Paris and London. Returning to America, he 
began the practice of his profession in Philadelphia in 1734. His correct 

S. Mis. 57 10 



146 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

6. At Congress din'd at M r . Sam 1 Meridith's. 107 

7. At Congress Dined at M r . Tho*. Smiths. 108 

8. At Congress Dined with M r . John Cadwallader 109 

deportment and his devotion to professional duty soon attracted atten- 
tion and won him an admiring clientage. He was not only humane but 
full of enterprise, and materially assisted in founding the college of Phil- 
adelphia. He gave the first course of clinical lectures to medical students 
in the Pennsylvania Hospital. As early as 1743, he was a member of a 
literary society composed of such men as Dr. B. Franklin, Bertram, God- 
frey Coleman, and others of scientific and literary tastes. He was for 
many years an officer of the American Philosophical Society, and deliv- 
ered the annual address in 1782. He was the author of a number of 
papers on medical and philosophical subjects, printed in the transactions 
of that Society. He was widely known as a learned physician, and very 
skillful surgeon, and was devoted to the interests of the Pennsylvania 
Hospital. 

107 Samuel Meredith was born in Philadelphia, 1740, and died on his 
estate, in Luzerne County, Pa., March 10, 1817. The Meredith family 
were trom Wales. Their admiration for Washington began with the 
father of Samuel, Rees Meredith, a successful merchant of Philadelphia, 
who met Washington by accident in a public house, when he was quite a 
young man, and was so pleased with his dignified demeanor, patriotic 
sentiments, and wide intelligence, that he invited him to dine with him 
on fresh venison. The acquaintance thus begun proved lasting, and ex- 
tended from father to sons. Samuel had served as a member of the legis- 
lature before the Revolution. In 1775 he entered the military service as 
major of the 3rd Pennsylvania Battalion, was in numerous engagements, 
and soon promoted for gallant services to be a brigadier-general. In an 
emergency during the war he and his brother-in-law, George Clymer, the 
signer, each gave 10,000 in silver to carry on the war. Gen. Meredith 
was exiled from Philadelphia during its occupancy by the British. He 
was a member of the old Congress 1787-'88, and was the first Treasurer of 
the United States, from 1787 to 1801, when he resigned. To aid the new 
Government, he advanced for it $20,000, and subsequently $120,000, which, 
it is stated, has never been repaid. Washington's diaries show that he 
dined with Mr. Meredith in Philadelphia in 1773, and again in 1774, and 
on other occasions. 

108 Thomas Smith. No data. 

109 John Cadwallader was born in Philadelphia, January 10, 1742, and 
died in Shrewsbury, Pa., February 11, 1786. He was the son of the emi- 
nent physician, Thomas Cadwallader, of Philadelphia. John was an early 
and zealous advocate of the rights of the Colonies in the controversy with 
the mother country. He was one of the original members of the Com- 
mittee of Safety, and captain of a military company prior to the Revolu- 
tion, which, in a bantering way, was called the " Silk Stocking Company," 
but the high character of the men composing it may be inferred from the 
fact that most of the members, in the progress of the military organiza- 
tion of the troops of the State, served as commissioned officers. On the 
organization of the city forces, he was placed in command of that bat- 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S DIARY, 1774 TONER. 147 

9. Went to the Presbeterian Meeting 110 in the forenoon and 
Romish Church 111 in the afternoon dind at Bevans's 112 

10. At Congress. din'd at Doc r . Morgan's ll3 

talion, and shortly afterward made brigadier-general and placed in com- 
mand of the Pennsylvania militia. Gen. Cadwallader cooperated very 
efficiently with Washington in the capture of the Hessians at Trenton, 
December 26, 1776, and was present as a volunteer at the battles of Bran- 
dywine, Germantown and Monmouth. In the fall of 1777, at the request 
of Gen. Washington, he assisted in organizing the militia of the Eastern 
Shore of Maryland. In 1778 the combination known as the "Conway 
Cabal" becoming aggressive against Washington, Gen. Cadwallader de- 
nounced and challenged the most outspoken of the plotters, Thomas Con- 
way. They met, and Conway was wounded, but recovered. As Gen. 
Cadwallader's service was in the Pennsylvania militia, and not in the 
regular Continental service, he was therefore only a volunteer aid to Wash- 
ington when the Pennsylvania militia were not in the field, although he 
declined the appointment of brigadier-general from Congress in 1777. 
After the independence of the States was recognized, he removed to Mary- 
land and served at different times in the legislature of that State, from 
Kent County. His daughter, Fanny, married David Montague, after- 
ward Lord Erskine. 

110 The Presbyterian meeting house or "New meeting house," as it was 
then spoken of, under the charge of the Rev. Gilbert Tennent, was situ- 
ated on the northwest corner of Third and Arch streets. The venerable 
Dr. Allison preached a sacramental discourse that day on which John 
Adams in his diary makes some comments. 

111 Catholic Church, mentioned here as the "Romish Church," was 
most likely St. Mary's on Fourth street, above Spruce, and was built abont 
1763. It served for a time as the bishop's church or cathedral, under the 
administration of the first Bishop of Philadelphia, the Right Rev. Michael 
Egan. John Adams in his diary under this date says, " Went in the after- 
noon to the Romish Chapel, and heard a good discourse on the duty of 
parents to their children, founded on justice and charity. The scenery 
and the music are so calculated to take in mankind, that I wonder the re- 
formation ever succeeded. The paintings, the bells, the candles, the gold 
and silver, and the Saviour on the Cross over the altar, at full length, and 
all His wounds bleeding. The chanting is exquisitely soft and sweet." 

1U Bevan's. Possibly a public house. 

113 John Morgan, M. D., was born in Philadelphia, 1735, and died in the 
same city, October 15, 1789. He was the son of Evan Morgan, a native of 
Wales, who settled in Philadelphia and became a prosperous merchant. 
John received a classical education at the Rev. Mr. Finley's academy and 
at the College of Philadelphia from which he graduated in 1757. As was 
then the custom, he was apprenticed to the study of medicine, with Dr. 
John Redman of Philadelphia. On the conclusion of his office studies, he 
entered the military service for a brief period, serving with the Pennsyl- 
vania troops, then engaged in the French and Indian war. In 1760 he went 
to Europe to study further and to prosecute, in the large hospitals and col- 
leges, a more systematic course of medicine than America afforded. In Paris 



148 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

Oct r . 11. Din'd at my Lodgings & spent the Evening at 
Bevan's 

12. At Congress all the forenoon Dined at M r . Jos 11 . Whar- 
tons m & went to y e Gov r8 . Club. 115 

he met and renewed a pleasant acquaintance with Dr. Benjamin Franklin, 
who introduced him to many eminent and scientific gentlemen in England 
and on the Continent. In 1763, he received the degree of M. D. from the 
University of Edinburgh. The following year was spent in the study of 
anatomy and physiology. He wrote a paper on "The art of making 
anatomical preparations by corrosions," and was elected a member of the 
Royal Academy. After visiting Italy and Holland, he returned to London 
for further study, and became a licentiate of " The College of Physicians 
and Surgeons." In 1765 he returned to Philadelphia thoroughly equipped 
for the practice of his profession. Shortly afterward he was largely instru- 
mental in founding the medical department of the College of Philadelphia, 
now the University of Pennsylvania, in which he was appointed the pro- 
fessor of the theory and practice of medicine. In 1775 he was appointed, 
by Congress, director-general of the military hospitals and physician in 
chief of the American Army, and immediately joined Gen. Washington, 
at Boston. The medical department, at this time, existed chiefly in name. 
He exerted himself with intelligence and energy to make it efficient and 
systematic in the conduct of the duties assigned to it with measurable 
success when all the difficulties are considered. Jealousies were excited 
and rivalries developed so that Congress, taking sides January 9, 1777, 
without inquiry or report to them of any facts in the case, dismissed him, 
and appointed a successor. Later, upon repeated petitions, his adminis- 
tration of the hospital department was inquired into, and he was acquitted 
of all blame. He continued his services in the Pennsylvania Hospital 
until 1783. Dr. Morgan was a member of the Royal Society of London, a 
member of the Belles -letters Society of Rome, the American Philosophical 
Society, and many others. His medical papers and writings show that 
he was not only a ripe scholar, but also thoroughly imbued with the spirit 
of scientific investigation. 

114 Joseph Wharton was born in Philadelphia, March 21, 1733, and died 
there December 25, 1816. He was the son of Joseph Wharton, merchant, 
who was also born in Philadelphia, August 4, 1707, and died in that city 
July, 1776. Joseph, the second, went to England in 1775, and while there 
wrote a number of letters on the attitude of Great Britain to the Colonies, 
which were published aud, at the time, attracted much attention ; but after- 
wards for safety he had to leave London for France. While in England he 
was much in thd company of the artist, Benjamin West. It was mainly 
through his suggestion and influence that West's painting of " Christ 
Healing the Sick" was given to the Pennsylvania Hospital. The transfer 
of this picture was only definitely accomplished in 1817. 

115 John Penn, lieutenant-governor of Pennsylvania in 1774, was the son 
of Richard and the grandson of William Penn, the founder of Pennsyl- 
vania. He was born in London, July 14, 1729, and died on his estate in 
Bucks County, Pa., February, 1795. He was well educated when he came 
to Pennsylvania in 1753, and was at once admitted as a member of the 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S DIARY, 1774 TONER. 149 

13. Dined at my lodgings after being at Congress till 4 ocl k . 

14. Dined at M r . Tho 8 . Barclay's 116 and spent the Evening at 
Smiths 

15. Dined at Bevans's spent the Evening at home. 

16. Went to Christ Church in the forenoon after which rid 
to, & dind in y e Provence Island Suppd at Byrns's m 

17. After Congress dind at board Capt n . Hamilton 118 Spent 
the Evening at M r . Miflin's 

18. Dined at Doct r . Bush's 1 19 and spent the Evening at y* New 
Tavern. 

Provincial council with the right to succeed to the presidency when a 
vacancy occurred. In 1754 he was sent as one of the commissioners of the 
colony to the Congress which met in Albany. In 1763 he became lieu- 
tenant-governor on the death of his father. In 1771 he inherited one- 
third of the Province, his uncle, Thomas, owning the remainder, by whose 
deputation and in his own right, he became governor of the Province in 
1773. He was opposed on principle, to taxation without representation. 
At the outset of the Revolution, the patriots organized an assembly, in the 
nature of a committee of safety, without consulting the governor. Gov- 
ernor Penu saw it was no use to antagonize the sentiment and while pro- 
testing, remained inactive. Most of the great landed estate of the Penna 
was confiscated, although the governor never took up arms against the 
Colonies. There was said to have been a very cordial friendship exist- 
ing between Washington and Governor Penn, from the period of the 
French and Indian war, which was never entirely broken off. 

116 Thomas Barclay. The writer has not identified this gentleman. 

117 Byrns's. Probably a public house. 

118 Capt. W. Hamilton. The Pennsylvania Gazette of October 5, 1774, 
records the fact that W. Hamilton of the Ship "Union" has taken a 
clearance. 

119 Benjainin Rush, M. D., signer of tne Declaration of Independence, was 
born in Bybury Township, Philadelphia County, Pa., December 24, 1745, 
and died in Philadelphia, April 19, 1813. His grandfather, John Rush, com- 
manded a troop of horse in Cromwell's army, and in 1683 emigrated to 
Pennsylvania. When Benjamin was but 6 years old, his father died. His 
earliest instructor was his uncle, Rev. Samuel Finley. Later he was sent 
to Princeton College, where he graduated in 1760. He read medicine with 
Dr. John Redman, and then went to Europe and graduated in. that study 
at the University of Edinburgh, 1768. He also studied at the hospitals 
in London and Paris. Here he had the wise counsel of Dr. B. Franklin. 
In 1769 he returned to Philadelphia, and shortly after was elected professor 
of chemistry in the College of Philadelphia. In 1771 he published papers 
on slavery, temperance and health, and in 1774 delivered an oration before 
the Philosophical Society on the natural history of medicine among the 
Indians. He early identified himself in the pre-revolutionary movements 
in advocacy of colonial rights. As a member of the Pennsylvania provin- 
cial congress, and chairman of a commiteee, he reported that it was expe- 



150 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

19. Dined at M r . Willings & spent the Evening at my own 
lodgings 

20. Dind at y e New Tavern with y e Pens*. Assembly 12 
went to the Ball afterwards 

dient that Congress declare independence. He was surgeon of the 
Pennsylvania navy from September to July, 1776, when he was elected 
member of Congress, which gave him the opportunity to sign the Declara- 
tion of Independence. In 1776 he married Julia, daughter of Richard 
Stockton, and in the same year was appointed Surgeon-General of the Mid- 
dle Department of the Continental Army, becoming Physician-General in 
1777. He was a man of much mental activity, well informed, and had 
great physical powers for prolonged labor. After the battles of Brandy- 
wine, Germantown, Trenton and Princeton, he underwent for some days 
great fatigue. In 1778 he resigned on account of wrongs that had been 
done the soldiers in regard to hospital stores ; and a coolness, about this 
time, existed between him and Gen . Washington . He refused compensation 
for his services while in the army and resumed private practice. For 
twenty-nine years he was surgeon to the Pennsylvania Hospital, and port 
physician in Philadelphia in 1790-'93. He was influential in founding Dick- 
inson College and the Philadelphia Dispensary. He was a member of the 
convention that ratified the Constitution of the United States, and also of 
the convention that drafted the constitution of the State of Pennsylvania. 
He performed a prodigious amount of labor during the epidemic of yellow 
fever in Philadelphia in 1793. His practice was bold and heroic. From 
1790 to his death he was treasurer of the United States Mint. He was an 
influential and valued member of nearly all the scientific societies of his 
time, and wrote much and well on every subject that engaged his atten- 
tion. In medical literature he is spoken of as the Sydenham of America. 

120 This dinner given to the delegates to the Continental Congress by the 
assembly of Pennsylvania, was a polite recognition of the character of the 
men composing that body, as well as a respectful consideration for the 
sister provinces from which they came. The courtesy of the affair, consid- 
ering the fact that the Congress was unauthorized by the ministers of 
Great Britain or the crown officers residing in America, all of whom 
would have prevented it if they could, was a high compliment, emphasized 
by the further fact that it was given under the patronage of the newly 
elected assembly of Pennsylvania, which was largely made up of "Friends," 
who were on principle opposed to the exercise of armed force. An analysis 
of the list of members shows that six delegates to the Continental Congress 
were also members elect of the assembly ; and also that in this assembly 
were two who were afterwards signers of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence. If we include the counties on the Delaware there were then three 
more who were members of the Continental Congress, and were later 
signers of the Declaration of Independence. Although there were some 
non-combatants, there were also others who were distinguished in arms 
and statesmanship, like John Dickinson, who was a tower of strength to 
the patriot cause. Such were the hosts and committee of reception in 
this, the first state dinner of the Revolution. From John Adams' diary 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S DIARY, 1774 TONER. 151 

we quote the following in relation to the dinner of one hundred or more 
guests. During the evening he says : 

"A sentiment was given, ' May the sword of the parent never be stained 
with the hlood of her children/ Two or three broad brims over against 
me at the table 5 one of them said, 'that is not a toast but a prayer ; come, 
let us join in it.' And they took their glasses accordingly." 

The editor wishes to acknowledge the obligation he is under to Dr. W. 
H. Egle, M. D., of Harrisburg, Pa., for the list of members of the newly 
elected assembly, and the particulars relating to this entertainment from 
the original minutes of the assembly of Pennsylvania, under date of Octo- 
ber 14, 1774. 

"Upon motion by Mr. Ross, 

" Resolved, unanimously, that John Dickinson, esq., be, and is hereby 
added to the Committee of Deputies appointed by the late Assembly of 
this province to attend the General Congress now sitting in the City of 
Philadelphia on American Grievances. 

"Resolved, That this House shall provide an entertainment, to be given 
on Thursday next, to the deputies from the several Colonies attending 
public business in this city. 

" Ordered, That Mr. Gray, Mr. Hillegas, Mr. Mifflin, Mr. Rodman, Mr. 
Pearson, Mr. Wayne, and Mr. Ross, with the Speaker, be a Committee to 
provide and superintend the said entertainment, and that Mr. Speaker do 
invite the gentlemen of the Congress accordingly." 

Upon motion on Friday, October 21, the following resolutions were 
passed : 

" Ordered, That Mr. Gray, Mr. Hillegas, Mr. Mifflin, Mr. Rodman, Mr. 
Pearson, Mr. Wayne, and Mr. Ross, or any four of them, with the Speak- 
er, be a committee to settle accounts of the entertainment given yester- 
day, and of the expenses attending the sitting of the Congress, and that 
the said committee do draw orders, for discharging the same, on Samuel 
Preston Moore, esq., to be paid out of the late interest money in his 
hands." 

Names of the members of the assembly of the province of Pennsylvania, 
chosen at the annual elections held October 1, 1774. 



For the County of Philadelphia : 

George Gray. 

Henry Pawling. 

John Dickinson. 

Joseph Parker. 

Isreal Jacobs. 

Jonathan Roberts. 

Michael Hillegas. 

tSamuel Rhoads. 
For the City of Philadelphia : 
"tThomas Mifflin. 

Charles Thomson. 
For the County of Bucks. 

John Brown. 

John Foulke. 



For the County of Bucks Cont'd. 

William Rodman. ' 

Benjamin Chapman. 

tJoseph Galloway. 

Robert Kirkbride. 

Gerardus Wynkoop. 

John Raney. 
For the County of Chester: 

Benjamin Bartholomew. 

John Jacobs. 

Joseph Pennock. 

James Gibbons. 

Isaac Pearson. 

tCharles Humphreys. 

*tJohn Morton. 



152 



AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 



Oct r . 21. Dined at my lodging & spent the Evening there also 
22. Dined at M r . Griffin's & drank Tea with M. Roberdeau 121 



For the County of Chester Cont'd. 

Anthony Wayne. 
For the County of Lancaster : 

James Webb. 

Joseph Ferree. 

Matthias Slough. 

*tGeorge Ross. 
For the County of York: 

James Ewing. 

Michael Swoope. 
For the County of Cumberland : 

William Allen. 

John Montgomery. 

Names with a star (*) before them were subsequently signers of the Dec- 
laration of Independence and those with a dagger (t) were members of 
the Continental Congress of 1774. 

The Pennsylvania Gazette of October 26, 1774, says : 

" On Thursday last an elegant entertainment, at the City Tavern, was 
given by the Assembly of this Province to the Gentlemen of tho Con- 



For the County of Berks : 

tEdward Biddle. 

Henry Christ. 
For the County of Northampton : 

William Edmunds. 
For the County of Bedford : 

Bernhard Daugherty. 
For the County of Northumberland 

Samuel Hunter. 
For the County of Westmoreland. 

William Thompson. 



131 Daniel Roberdeau was born in the island of St. Christopher, West 
Indies, in 1727, and died in Winchester, Va., January 5, 1795. He was the 
son of Isaac Roberdeau, a French Huguenot, and was brought by his 
mother's family, who were Scotch, to Philadelphia. From his youth he 
was trained to merchandising and the counting house. He was well edu- 
cated, active, intelligent and attentive to business. .He was as early as 
1752 a Mason and was a member of the Pennsylvania assembly in 1756, 
serving until 1760. In 1765 he was an elder in the Presbyterian church. 
Early in the movement of the Revolution, he identified himself with the 
friends of the colonies, and joining the Pennsylvania Associators was 
elected, in 1775, colonel of the Second Battalion, and made president of the 
board of government of the association. He presided at a public meeting 
at the State house May 20, 1776, which greatly influenced sentiment in 
favor of the Declaration of Independence. While in command of his bat- 
talion, he and his partner Col. John Bayard, fitted out two ships as priva- 
teers, one of which took a valuable prize with $22,000 in silver which he 
placed at the disposal of Congress. July 4, 1776, he was chosen a member 
of the council of safety, the same year was elected brigadier-general of 
the Pennsylvania troops, and assisted Washington in New Jersey. In Feb- 
ruary, 1777, he was elected to the Continental Congress and served until 
1779. In 1778, in hope of supplying lead to aid the army, he undertook^ to 
start the smelting of lead from the ore at a disused mine in Bedford County, 
Pa., where he established a fort and smelting works. The project did not 
succeed, however. 

In May, 1779, he presided at a public meeting in Philadelphia, to expose 
and correct the abuses of depreciating the currency. After the Revolu- 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S DIARY, 1774 TONER. 153 

23. Dined at my lodgings and spent the Evening there 

24. Dined with M r . Mease & spent the Evening at the New 
Tavern 

25. Dined at my lodgings 

26. Dined at Bevans's, and Spent the Evening at the New 
Tavern. 

27. Set out on my return home dined at Chester and lodged 
at New castle 

28. Breakfasted at the Buck Tavern Dined at Downs's & 
lodged at Newtown upon Chester 

29. Breakfasted at Rockhall & reachd Annapolis in the 
Afternoon. 

30. Breakfasted at MX Cal verts 122 & reachd home ab*. 3 
oclock. 123 

31. At home all day. 

tion the general removed to Alexandria, Va., and became a neighbor of 
Washington's, though he soon afterwards removed to Winchester, where 
he died. He had a son, Isaac who resided at Georgetown, D. C., dying 
there in 1829. 

123 Benedict Calvert, esq. : Mount Airy, the seat of the Calvert family in 
Maryland, is in Prince Qeorge County, situated about 15 miles from the 
city of Washington and 6 from Upper Marlboro. The land was bought 
from Ignatius Digges. This estate was inherited by Benedict from his 
father, Charles Calvert, sixth Lord Baltimore, then it descended to his eld- 
est son, Edward Henry, who married Elizabeth Briscoe ; George, a second 
son, married an heiress, a Miss Rosalie Steel, of Maryland, and established 
his house near Bladensburg, the beautiful estate known as " Riversdale," 
which is often erroneously referred to by writers as the old family estate 
of the Calverts. Benedict died at Mount Airy in 1788, had three daugh- 
ters, Eleanor, Elizabeth and Ariana. Eleanor married John Parke Cnstis, 
the son of Mrs. Martha Washington by her first husband; and the ward of 
Gen. Geo. Washington ; she bore him four children. Her husband died at 
Eltham, of camp fever contracted at Yorktown, in 1781. Elizabeth mar- 
ried Charles Stuart, esq., of "Dodon," near Annapolis, Md. The third 
daughter never married. 

123 As of interest in connection with the first Continental Congress, the 
following transcript is made from Washington's cashbook of moneys paid 
out by him for purchases and for his expenses while in and traveling to 
and from Philadelphia : 
Sept. 4, 1774. By travelling Expe 8 . to the Congress at Phila. 

pr mem m . Book 10-11-12 

By Sundries purchased there viz. 

a pr of Boots for Servr* 2. 5. 

" 6 a pr of Shoes fec Do 15.0 

" 17 Pock 1 , hand'f 4 19.0 

" 19 5 y d . of Chints a 10/ 2. 10. 



154 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 



By 


Sundries purchased there viz. Continued. 




Sept. 19, 1774. 


7iy d8 . of Cotton 


2. 14. 4 


" 25 


lp 8 . of Irish Lin n . a 5/3 


6. 13.10 


" 30 


1 Cotton Gown 7 y^ a 5/ 


1. 15. 




1 doz n . Pock*. Hand fs a 4/3 


2. 11. 




1 p r . Silk Hose 


1. 4. 




Bed Furniture & mark* 


55. 12. 6 




3 Bedsteads 


12. 0. 




1 Tooth Brush 


1. 3 




1 Razor Strap 


11. 




6i y dl . Calico a 7/6 


2. 8. 9 




M r . Marchintons Acct ) 
besides 3 for Col Le J 


3. 8. 3 


October 5 th . viz 


12 p r Woolcards 


1. 10. 




6p r Cotton " 


1. 0. 




1 Pocket Book 


15. 


8*. 


1 Bell & Furniture 


1. 16.10 




lp Irish Linen 


4. 13. 9 




Mr. Barrels Acct 


5. 7. 6 


" 10*. 


lib Snuff 


7. 6 




Mr. Marchintons 2nd Acct 


19. 4. 




Mr. Simpson for shoes 


4. 6. 


u 12 th . 


Mr. Marchinton's 3 rd . Acct 


15. 6. 9 




2p T ofwhiteRib'dHose 


15. 


" 13 th . 


1 Pocket Book 


1. 5. 




1 Watch Key 


2. 6 




A Sword Chain 


2. 0. 




8 Cakes Shoe Blacking 


12. 


19* h . 


20iy d . paint d . Ribbon 


2. 16. 


" 20 th . 


Mr Wm Milner's 2 d Acct 


3. 15. 


" 21 


4 y d painted Ribben 


9. 




10 y d of edging 


10. 




4p r Nutt Crackers 


12. 




1 Small hand vice 


5. 6 


u 22 nd . 


1 Doz n . p r coarse y n . Hose 


2. 10. 




1 p r yarn Gloves 


2. 6 


" 24 th . 


lp r Buckskin Gloves 


7. 6 




2p r Shoes for self 


1. 3. 6 




Cloak for my Mother 


10. 2. 1 




An artificial Magnet 


1. 6 




10 yards of edging 


10. 


" 35th. 


Mr. W m . Milnor's 3 rd . Acct 


15. 8. 6 




" " " GfishRimbs . 


1. 2. 6 




a Pock 4 . Book M W n 


4. 15. 




ap r of Gloves 


3. 6 




a Chaizeformy mother 


40. 




Sundry Pamphlets 


17. 6 



459. 16. 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S DIARY, 1774 TONER. 155 



By Sundries purchased there viz. Continued. 

October27 th . By Expens in Philad* 62. 2.4 

By Charity there 5. 10. 2 

By Cash given away 13. 10. 

By Servants 3. 4. 

" 30*. By Exp" in returning from Phd* 8. 15. 1 



363. 16. 9 

Deduct 25 p r C* Exch* to reduce it to 
VirginiaCurnr 112. 15.4 



251. 1. 5 



INDEX TO DR. TONER'S PAPER. 



Aberdeen, Scotland, 127. 

Abingdon on Potomac, 116. 

Ablest of debaters, 128. 

Abstraction of manuscripts, 108. 

Accotink, village of, 124, 144. 

Account of tbe weather, 129, 142. 

Act of assembly for a ferry, 123. 

Act of Congress for purchase of papers, 87. 

Adam, Robert, 119, 120. 

Adams, John, 102, 106, 132, 134, 139, 142,145, 

147, 150. 

Adams, Samuel, 142. 
Address to inhabitants of Quebec, 110. 
Address to the States, 138. 
Addresses, etc., bundle of, 86. 
Adjutant- General of American Army, 145. 
Agent for sale of papers, 94, 
Agents of Congress, 140. 
Aldermen of Philadelphia, 140. 
Alexander, John, 123. 
Alexandria, Va., 109, 116, 117, 120, 123, 153. 

Incorporated, 119, 120. 

Trustees of, 119. 
Alexandria County, Va., 125. 
Albany, N. T., 90. 
Allan, Andrew, 134, 142. 
Allan, James, 135, 

Diary of, 135. 

Allen, Chief Justice William, 134, 152. 
Allison, Rev. Dr., 147. 
Almanacs, diary written in, 74. 
Alnwich Latin school, 12L 
American Army, 76. 
American grievances, 151. 
American independence, 106, 121. 
American liberty, 127. 
American Philosophical Society, 132, 141, 

143, 144, 146, 148, 149. 
American Republic, 102. 
Anatomical preparations, 148. 
Anatomy, lectures on, 132. 
Annapolis, Md.,116, 120, 125, 129, 130, 145, 153. 

Bar of, 134. 

Packet ferry at, 130. 
Anne Arundel town, 130. 
Apollo room, 113. 



Appropriation bill, 93. 

Aquia Creek, 117. 

Aquia Creek church, 118. 

Aquia village, 117. 

Archer, W. S., chairman foreign relations, 

83, 93. 

Archives of the United States, 80, 81, 82, 91. 
Argus, published at Richmond, 133. 
Armory in the Revolution, 131. 
Armstrong, John, 106. 
Army, critical condition of, 136. 
Army officers, letters to, 82, 84. 
Army returns, 87. 
Army supplies, 138. 
Arnold, Benedict, 86, 142. 
Artificers of New York, 138. 
Artillery, resignations in, 87. 
Assembly of Pennsylvania, 138, 145. 

List of, 151. 

Dinner given by, 150, 152. 
Assembly of Virginia, 133. 
Attempt to bribe, 145. 
Attorney general of Pennsylvania, 134,139. 
Attorneys-general, Virginia, 115. 
Autograph collectors, 105, 106. 
Autograph drafts of letters, 100. 
Autograph letters, 98, 99. 
Autograph letters of Washington, 97, 104, 
105. 

In Pennsylvania Historical Society, 104. 
Autograph letters on the war, 94. 

Their lodging place, 100. 
Autograph papers as gifts, 74, 79. 

Taken and copies substituted, 90. 
Autographic Washington remains, 106. 
Avenant, D', Charles, 133. 
Aylett's, 117. 
Baker, William S., 105. 
Ball in England, 142, 150. 
Ball in the Statehouse, 137. 
Ballroom, elegant, 131. 
Balls and assemblies, 142. 
Bank of Alexandria, 125. 
Bank of North America, 140. 
Bank of the United States, 140. 
Barbecue feast, 124. 

157 



158 



AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 



Barbadoes, Journal to, 94. 

Barclay, Thomas, 149. 

Bar of Williamsburg, Va., 115. 

Bartholomew, Benjamin, 151. 

Bassett, Col. Burwell, 113, 116. 

Bassett, William, 113. 

Bath, England, 121. 

Battle of Great Meadows, 121. 

Battle of Monmouth, 124. 

Bayard, Col. John, 152. 

Baylor, Col. George, 98. 

Bedford County, Pa., 152. 

Belle Air, 96. 

Belle Haven, 123. 

Belles-Letter Society, Borne, 148. 

Belvoir burnt, 122, 124. 

Belvoir estate on Potomac, 119, 121, 122, 124. 

Left to Ferdinand Fairfax, 122. 

Rented, 122. 

Berdt, De, Dennis, agent, 145. 
Berdt, De, Esther, 145. 
Berkeley Springs, 125. 
Berkeley, Sir William, 128. 
Berks County, Pa., 152. 
Bertram, Dr., 146. 
Berwick, England, 121. 
Sevan's, 147, 148, 149, 153. 
Biddle, Edward, 152. 
Bill of Rights, 128. 
Birch's Sons, Phila., 105. 
Bladensburg, Md., 124, 153. 
Blake, Mr., 89. 

Bland, Col. Richard, 114, 141. 
Bland, Theodoric, 106. 
Board of war, 86, 136. 
Bond, Dr. Thomas, 145. 
Book-plate fraud, 107. 
Book of experiments and observations, 94. 
Books and charts, 78. 
Books and manuscripts, 79. 
Books and pamphlets, 86. 
Books packed for shipment, 95. 
Books of invoices, 92. 
Books owned by Washington, 79. 
Boston Athenaeum, 78, 95. 
"Boston gentlemen", members, 95, 141, 142. 
Bowling Green, 117. 
Bowie, Mr., 76, 77, 78. 
Braddock, General Edward, 94, 119. 

Defeat of, 81, 83, 115. 

Expedition of, 121. 
Brandywine, battle of, 145, 147, 150. 
Brent, George, 128. 
Brevoort, James Carson, 96, 99. 
Bridge at Fredericksburg, 117. 
Brigade returns, 89. 
Briscoe, Elizabeth, 153. . 
British army, costumes of, 97. 

Officers of, 107. 

Attacked at Princeton, 139. 

Capture New York City, 134. 



British colonial army, surgeon of, 121. 

British colonies, 111. 

British evacuate Boston, 136. 

British Government and the colonies, 135. 

British Government and policy of, 135. 

British in possession of Philadelphia, 135,140. 

British Museum, 95. 

British officers, 86. 

Broadbrims, 151. 

Broadhead, Daniel, 106. 

Brock, R. A., 98. 

Brompton, England, 115. 

Brown, Dr. Gustavus, 125. 

Brown, John, 151. 

Brown, Margaret, 125. 

Buck tavern, 131, 153. 

Bucks County, Pa., 148, 151. 

Bundles of papers, 86. 

Bush Hill, J. Hamilton at, 144. 

Butterfield, C. W,, 102. 

Bybury Township, Pa., 149. 

Byrns's house of entertainment, 149. 

Cabinet papers, 85. 

Cadwallader, Fanny, 147. 

Cadwallader, John, 106, 146. 

Cadwallader, Dr. Thomas, 142, 146. 

Calendar of Washington letters, 100. 

Calvert, Ariana,118, 153. 

Calvert, Benedict, 106, 116, 118, 153. 

Calvert, Charles, 153. 

Calvert, Edward Henry, 153. 

Calvert, Eleanor ["Nelly"], 116, 125, 151. 

Calvert, Elizabeth, 118, 153. 

Calvert, George, 153. 

Calvert family in Maryland, 153. 

Cambridge, Mass., 84, 88, 90, 95, 136. 

Cambridge, University of, 79. 

Cameron and Fairfax street, 119. 

Campbell, Adj. Colin, 114. 

Campell, Mrs., 113, 114, 116. 

Cannon and Prince street, 131. 

Capital of Mary land, 130. 

Capital of Virginia, 113, 130. 

Carlisle, Pa., 138. 

Carlyle, George, 118. 

Carlyle, Col. John, 118, 119, 125. 

Carlyle, Miss Nancy, 118, 121. 

Carlyle, Sarah ["Sally"], 118, 121. 

Caroline County, Va., 126. 

Carpenter's Hall, 133, 140. 

Carr, Dabney, 127. 

Carrington, Edward, 106. 

Carroll, Charles, 106. 

Carroll, Daniel, 106. 

Carson, Landlord, 131. 

Carter, London, 106. 

Cary, Archibald, 106. 

Cary, John, LL. D., 103. 

Cary, Robert, 106. 

Cary, Sarah, 122. 

Cary. Col. Wilson, 122. 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S DIARY, 1774 TONER. 159 



Gary's map, 130. 

Cash book, transcript from, 153. 

Cash, memorandums of, 94. 

Catalogue sales of "Washington letters, 106. 

Cathedral, Philadelphia, 147. 

Catholic church, Pennsylvania, 147. 

Catholic services at St. Mary's, 147. 

Cavalry resignations, 87. 

Centennial Exposition, 97. 

Chamberlayne, Ann EMly, 113. 

Chancellor of University of New York, 96. 

Chapel, William and Mary College, 115. 

Chapman, Benjamin, 151. 

Characters to whom Washington wrote, 

106. 

Charles County, Md., 125, 128. 
Chastellux, Marquis de, 101, 124. 
Chastellux's travels in America, 101. 
Chatham, Lord, 111. 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, 80. 
Chesapeake Bay, 130. 
Cheseldon, Prof., 143. 
Chester, Pa., 132, 153. 
Chester County, Pa., 151. 
Chester River, 130, 131, 
Chester-town, Md., 130, 131, 134. 

Capital of Kent County, 131. 
Chester-town custom-house, 131. 
Chew, Benjamin, 139. 
Chew, Judge Samuel, 139. 

Hospitality of, 139. 

Chews' s stone house at Germ an town, 139. 
Chief justice of Pennsylvania, 142, 145. 
Childs, George W., 105. 
Christ Church, Episcopal ["new"], 141, 

144, 149. 

Christ Church, Fairfax Parish, 119. 
Christ, Henry, 152. 
Christiana ferry, 132. 
Churchill, Miss Elizabeth, 115. 
Cincinnati, papers relating to, 86. 
Circular barn, 122. 
City Cavalry, 139. 
City of Philadelphia, 151, 137. 

Gives a dinner, 137. 
City Tavern, or New Tavern, 132, 133, 140. 

Entertainment at, 152. 
Civil and military affairs, 133. 
Claims against the United States, 80. 
Clerk's office, Caroline County, Va., 126. 
Clifton, William, 118. 
Clinical lectures in Philadelphia, 146. 
Clinton, George, 106. 
Cloak for mother, 154. 
Clothing returns, 90. 
Club, a popular drink, 134. 
Club at New Tavern, 13J. 
Clubs, social, 134. 
Clymer, George, 146. 
Coach, raffle for, 115. 
Coleman, Godfrey, 146. 



College of Philadelphia, 132, 135, 141, 143, 
146, 147, 149. 

Medical Department, 148. 
College of Physicians and Surgeons, Lon- 
don, 148. 

College of William and Mary, 113. 
Colonial and Revolutionary history, 91. 
Colonial and Revolutionary papers, 82. 
Colonial Congress, (1765) 138. 
Colonial landmarks, 137. 
Colonial History of Virginia, 97. 
Colony of Virginia, 120. 
Combe, Rev. Mr., 145. 
Commander-in-chief, 81, 82, 84, 98, 102, 145. 
Commissaries and quartermasters, 87. 
Commissary of supplies, 119. 
Committee on Commerce, 138. 
Committee of Correspondence, 115, 126, 127, 

140, 145. 

Committee on Foreign Affairs, 83, 91. 
Committee of safety, 126, 128, 146, 149. 
Common council of Philadelphia, 135, 140. 
Common pleas court, 140. 
Company pay roll, 86. 
Compass made by L>. Rittenhouse, 97. 
Confederation of the colonies, 126. 
Confederate union suggested, 133.' 
Confiscation of the Penn estate, 149. 
Congress, 86, 91, 145, 146, 148, 149. 

Archives of, 76. 

At Albany, 149. 

Of delegates, 133. 

President of, 80, 81. 

Report to, on value of library, 84. 
Connecticut archives, 98. 
Connecticut line resignations, 87. 
Connecticut, state of collections in, 104. 
Constitution of United States, 74, 128. 

Adoption of, 82. 

Of Virginia, 128. 
Contagions diseases, 136. 
Continental Army, 104, 132. 
Continental cavalry, 145. 
Continental Congress, 73, 83, 84, 114, 115, 126, 
126, 128, 129, 132, 133, 136, 138, 141, 144, 
145, 150, 152, 153. 

(1774) 109,110,127. 

Adjourns to meet again, 133. 

Members of, 152. 

Note of, 150. 

Continental service, 147. 
Convention at Albany, 133. 

Of Virginia, 113,114,127. 

To frame the Constitution, 136, 138. 

To ratify Constitution, 127, 128, 150. 
Conway Cabal, 147. 
Conway, Moncure D., 99. 
Cooke, Nicholas, 106. 
Coolness toward Washington, 150. 
Copies of all of Washington's writing* so- 
licited, 106. 



160 



AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 



Copies of letters sent, 75. 

Corcoran Art Gallery, 142. 

Corcoran, William W., 97, 98. 

Corporation of Philadelphia, 137. 

Countinghouse, 152. 

County justice, 126. 

County lieutenant, 126. 

Court-house records, 117. 

Court of appeals of Virginia, 127. 

Court of common pleas, 142. 

Cox, Daniel, 133. 

Craik, Dr. James, 76, 77, 106, 119, 121, 124. 

Craik, Sarah, 125. 

Crawford, William, 106. 

Cromwell's army, 149. 

Crossed the Delaware, 139. 

Crown, employed hy, 144. 

Crown officers, 150. 

Cumberland County, Pa., 152. 

Cushing, Thomas, 142. 

Custis estate, 116. 

Custis, recollections of, 124. 

Custis, Daniel Parke, 116. 

Custis, Eleanor Parke ["Nelly"], 90,116. 

Custis, Elizabeth Parke, 116. 

Custis, George Washington Parke, 116, 

125. 
Custis, John Parke ["Jacky"], 116,119, 

125, 153. 
Custis, Martha Parke ["Patsy"], 113, 116, 

'l20. 

Custom-house, 131. 
Cutter, C. A., librarian, 95. 
Cyphering book, 93. 
Dalton, Capt. John, 119, 121. 
Dancing, popularity of, 142. 
Dandridge, Anna Maria, 113. 
Dandridge, Bartholomew, 106. 
Dandridge, Col. John, 113. 
Dandridge, Martha, 116. 
Dawaon, Elizabeth, 115. 
Dawson's Historical Magazine, 105. 
Dayton, H. O., 89. 
Declaration of Independence, 126, 138, 139, 

140, 150, 152. 

Defense of colonial rights, 111. 
Delancy, Mr., 135. 
Delaware River, 131, 132. 
Delaware State line, 131. 
Delegates chosen to Congress, 114. 
Delivery of papers to Government, 88. 
Department of State, 77, 80, 81, 86, 88, 89, 

91, 92, 93. 
Library of, 83. 

Washington papers in, 89, 90. 
Departments of the Government, 79, 84. 
Department of the Treasury, 75. 
Depreciating the currency, 152. 
Deputies appointed by assembly, 151. 
Deputies to convention, 113. 



Descriptive catalogue, gift for, 95. 

Devise of library, 75. 

Diary, Washington's, after the war, 94. 

All existing parts assembled, 109. 

Excerpt from, 73, 79, 88, 91, 92, 94, 97, 
108, 109, 113, 126. 

Volumes for 1762 and 1767 missing, 94. 
Dickens, Mr., 93. 
Dickinson College, 138,150. 
Dickinson, John, 106, 110, 137, 150, 151. 
Dickinson, Somuel, 137. 
Digges, Miss, 124. 
Digges, Ignatius, 153. 
Digges, William, 125, 126. 
Dined with the assembly of Pennsylvania, 

150. 

Dinner at Chew's, 140. 
Dinner to members of Congress, 137, 150. 
Dinwiddie, Governor Robert, 111, 114. 

Papers of, 97. 

Diplomatic address of Washington, 109. 
Director-general of hospitals, 121, 148. 
Director- general of military hospital, 132. 
Dispersion of Washington's library and 

papers, 79, 91. 

Dispersion of Washington relics, 107. 
"Dodon," an estate in Maryland, 153. 
Dogue Neck, 128. 

Dogue Run, plantation, 116, 122, 123. 
Dougherty, Bernard, 152. 
Down's crossroads. 131. 
Down's Tavern, 131, 153. 
Dowse, Thomas, 95. 
Dreer, Ferdinand J., 105, 108, 114. 
Dress sword of Gen. Washington, 96. 
Dressing table, 125. 
Drexel, Joseph W., 105. 
Duche, Rev. Jacob, 141. 
Duel, Con way and Cadwallader, 147. 
Dumfries Village, Va., 117. 
Dunmore, Lord, governor of Virginia, 76, 

115, 127. 

Eastern Neck Island, 130. 
Eastern Shore of Maryland, 147. 
E-ten, Governor, 135, 

Editors of Washington's writings, 101, 103. 
Edmunds, William, 152. 
Egan, Right Rev. Michael, 147. 
Egle, W. H., 151. 
Eilbeck, Col. William, 128. 
Elder in Presbyterian church, 152. 
Eloquence of Patrick Henry, 127. 
"Eltham," estate of Col. Bassett, 113, 116, 

153. 

Emmet, Dr. Thomas Addis, 105. 
England and the continent, 148. 
English colonies, 133. 
Entertained by the assembly, 151. 
Erskine, Lord, 147. 
Estaing, d', Count Charles Hector, 106. 



GEORGE WASHINGTON S DIARY, 1774 TONER. 161 



Estate given with library, 74. 

Evacuation of Boston, 136. 

Everett, Hon. Edward, 78, 84, 85, 88, 99. 

Ewell, Mariamne, 121. 

Ewing, James, 152. 

Executor of Gen. Washington's will, 79. 

Expedition to the Ohio, 121. 

Extracts from the Virginia Charter, 128. 

"Fabius," a nom de plume, 138. 

"Fair Hill," 138. 

Fairfax. Eev. Bryan, 122, 206. 

Fairfax County, 119, 120, 121, 127, 128. 

Fairfax County, mass meeting, 109. 

Fairfax County resolutions, 128. 

Fairfax Court-House, 125. 

Fairfax, George William, 106, 118, 124. 

Sale at Belvoir, 121. 
Fairfax, Lord Thomas, 122, 124. 
Fairfax, Sarah, 119. 

Fairfax, Hon. William, 106, 119, 121, 124. 
Family papers, 106. 
Family relics parted with, 97. 
Farewell Address, first draft of, 96. 
Farmer's letters, 138. 
Farms, each had an outfit, 118. 
Father of our country, 75, 82. 
Federal convention, 128. 
Ferree, Joseph, 152. 
Ferry farm plantation, 116. 
Ferry to Maryland, 118. 
Fick, professor at Esslingen, 87. 
Finley, Rev. Samuel, 147, 149. 
Fisher, W., Mayor, 139. 
Fisher's Island, 136. 
Fisheries at Mount Vernon, 120. 
Fishing Landing on Posey farm, 123. 
Fishing Landing, 120. 
First aide-de-camp, 136. ' 
First Regiment of Pennsylvania, 136. 
Fitzgerald, Col. John, 124. 
Fitzhugh, Mr., 123. 
Fitzhugb, John, of "Marmion," 123. 
Fitzhugh, William, 123. 
Flummery and jellies, 140. 
Flying camp, 132. 
Foot, Mr., 99. 
Force, Peter, 90, 92. 
Ford, Worthington C., 103. 
Foreign Affairs Committee, 86. 
Formation of the Government, 82, 84. 
Forsyth ; John, Secretary, 88, 89, 91. 
Fort Necessity, 121. 
Fort Washington, 126. 
Foster father, 116. 
Foulke, John, 151. 
Fox chase, 128. 

Fox, George, Society of Friends, 140. 
France and Great Britain, 77. 
Francis, Tench, 142. 

S. Mis. 57 11 



Franklin, Dr. Benjamin, 102, 106, 139, 146, 

148, 149. 

Fredericksburg, Va., 109, 116, 117, 139. 
Free institutions, 75. 
Free school at Chestertown, 131. 
Free speech in America, 144. 
French, Daniel, 119. 
French and Indian war, 123, 147, 149. 
French army in America, 101. 
French forces in America, 107. 
French Huguenot, 152. 
French war, papers on, 81, 83, 85. 
Friends' Academy, 137. 
Friends in Pennsylvania A ssembly, 150. 

Society of, 133. 
Fry, Joshua, 106. 
Galena, Md., 131. 
Galloway, Joseph, 140, 151. 
Galloway, Samuel, 139. 
Gardens and farming, 136. 
Gates, Horatio, 106. 
General and field officers, 86. 
Georgetown, D. C., 81, 86, 88, 91, 123, 130. 
George Washington and Mount Vernou, 99. 
Georgia, State of, 105. 
Gennantown, Pa., battle of, 132, 139, 145, 

147, 150. 

Gibbons, James, 151. 
Gilmor, Judge Robert, 108. 
Gold watch chain and two seals, 96. 
Gooch, Governor William, 114. 
Gordon, Dr. William, 76, 106. 
Government, formation of, 82. 
Government of the United States, 80. 

Papers relating to, 90. 
Government records, 93. 
Governor's Club, 134. 
Governors of States, 81, 82, 84, 86. 
' ' Grange, " estate of Robert Morria, 139. 
Gratz, Simon, 105. 
Gray, George, 151. 
Grayson, William, 1C6. 
Great Britain and the Colonies, 128. 
Great meetinghouse, 141. 
Greene, Nathanael, 106. 
Greenway court, 122, 124. 
Griffen, Mr., 135, 152. 
Grover, Martin, 96. 
Gunning Green, 117. 
Gunston Hall, 119, 127, 128. 
Gunther, Mr., of Chicago, 105. 
Halltown, Jefferson County, Va., 96. 
Hamilton, Dr., of Annapolis, 145. 
Hamilton, Alexander, 102, 106. 
Hamilton, Andrew, 137, 139, 144. 
Hamilton, James, 137, 144. 
Hamilton, Lieut, Gov., of Pa., 144. 
Hamilton, William, 136, 137. 
Hamilton, Capt. W., 149. 



162 



AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION, 



Hampton, Va., 122. 

Hancock, John, 86, 106, 142. 

Hand, Edward, 106. 

Hanover County, Va., 127. 

Hanson, Elizabeth, 125. 

Hanson's "Old Kent," 125. 

Harper's Ferry, 96. 

Harper's Magazine, 105. 

Harrisburg, Pa., 137, 151. 

Harrison, Benjamin, 106, 114, 115, 141. 

Harrison, R. H., 106. 

Harrison, Sybil, 119. 

Hasty studies of Washington's life, 103. 

Havermyer, "Win. A., 105. 

Hazen, Moses, 106. 

Headquarters, 81. 

Heath, Maj. Gen. William, 101, 106. 

Henry, Alexander, 127. 

Henry, John, 127. 

Henry, Patrick, 102, 106, 110, 114, 126, 127. 

Chosen Governor of Virginia, 127. 

Opposed the constitution, 127. 
Herbert, William, 125. 
"Hermitage," in Queen Anne County, Md., 

134. 

Hessians, capture of, at Trenton, 147. 
High Court of Errors and Appeals, 139, 

142. 

Hill, Mr., 138. 
Hillegas, Michael, 151. 
Historical students, 103. 
Historical treasures, 85. 
Historical value of autograph material, 108. 
History of our country, 83. 
History of the Revolution, 76. 
Holderness, Lort, i33. 
Hopkinson, Francis, 106. 
Horses, servants and baggage, 110. 
Hospital, Pennsylvania, 141. 

Corner stone laid, 141. 
Hospital department of Army, 148. 
Hospital returns, 86, 87. 
Hospital training, 142. 
Hospitals in Paris and London, 145. 
Hotel, largest in Phila., 132, 133. 
House of Burgesses, 113, 114, 117, 126, 127. 

Election returns, 93. 
Household expenses, 96. 
Howe, Kobert (M. C.), 106. 
Howson, Robert, 123. 
Humphreys, Charles, 151. 
Humphreys, David, 106. 
Hunter, Dr. John, 132. 
Hunter, Samuel, 152. 
Hunter, Dr. Wm., 132. 
Hunting Creek, 123. 
"Huntingfleld," 130. 
Hynson, Nathaniel, 131. 
Hiac Passion, essay on, 143. 
Independence, struggle for, 80, 81, 98. 



Independence Hall, 137. 

Indian and Revolutionary war, 121. 

Indians invade frontier, 115. 

Inner Temple, London, 114. 

Inspection returns, 87, 89. 

Inspection rolls of negroes, 86. 

Interred in chapel of William and Mary Col- 

lege, 115. 

Invoices, two books of, 92. 
Invoices and correspondence, 94. 
Ireland, 124. 

Irvine, Brig. Gen. William, 102, 106. 
Island of St. Christopher, 152. 
Jacobs, Israel, 151. 
Jacobs, John, 151. 
Jacob's staff, 97. 
James City County, 113. 
James River, 113. 
Jamestown, 113. 
Jay, John, 106, 110. 

Jefferson, Thomas, 100, 102, 107, 127, 128. 
Jefferson's library, purchased by United 

States, 84. 

Jennings, Edmund, sr., 115. 
Jennings, Edmund, 115. 
Jenifer, Dr. Daniel, 125. 
Johnson, Thomas, 107, 125. 
Jones, John, 142. 
Jones, Joseph, 102, 107. 
Journal of Journey over the Mountains, 94, 

122. 

Journals of Congress, 87. 
Journey to Philadelphia, 126. 
Journey over the mountains in 1784, 94. 
Keepsakes to friends, 74. 
Kent County, Del., 137. 
Kent County, Md., 125, 130, 131, 147. 
Kenmore House, 117. 
King George County, 117, 123. 
u King Herod " won the race, 135. 
King William County, 116. 
King and Queen County, 116. 
King William Court-House, 116, 117. 
King's Attorney of Virginia, 114. 
Kirkbride, Robert, 151. 
Knox, Henry, 102, 107. 
Lafayette, General, 107. 

Correspondence with Washington, 102. 

Diary of, 101. 

Memoirs of, 101. 

Pistol presented by, 96. 
Lancaster, Pa., 136. 
Lancaster and Philadelphia, 137. 
Lancaster County, 152. 
Land office of Virginia, 98. 
Langhorne, John, 92. 
Last words written by Washington, 4. 
Laurens, John, 107. 
Lawrence, Elizabeth, 13*. 
Lawrence, John, 135. 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S DIARY, 1774 TONER. 161 



Lear, Tobias, 78, 100, 107. 

Lectures on anatomy, 132. 

Ledger from 1750 to 1772, 94. 

Lee, Arthur, 124. 

Lee, Charles, 107, 134. 

Lee, Henry, 102, 107. 

Lee, Hon. Richard Henry, 101, 107, 110, 114. 

124, 127, 140, 141, 142. 
Lee, Richard Henry, grandson, 101. 
Lee, Col. R. H., lodged, 132, 134. 
Legislature of Mary land, 147. 
Legislature of Pennsylvania, 136. 
Lenox Lihrary, N. T., 105. 
Letter books, Washington's, 77. 
Letters and miscellaneous papers, 85. 
Letters of Gen. "Washington, 80, 101, 102. 
Letters to Gen. Washington, 94. 
Lewis, Betty, 78, 117. 
Lewis, Col. Fielding, 117. 
Lewis, Francis, 117. 
Lewis, John, 117. 
Lewis, Lawrence, 90. 
Lewis, Warner, 117. . 
Lexington fight, 136. 

Library and manuscripts of Washington, 
79, 95. 

At Mount Vernon, dispersion of, 110. 

Bequeathed, 75. 

In order, 74. 
Library of Congress, 102, 106. 

Of value to United States, 75. 
Life and writings of Washington, 79. 
Lincoln, Benjamin, 107. 
List of polls of election, 93. 
" Literary leather dresser," 95. 
Literary remains of Washington, 97. 
Little Tails, 123. 
Little Hunting Creek, 118. 
Livermore, Mr., 95. 
Livingston, Robert, 107. 
Livingston, William, 107. 
Lodgings, 113, 114, 115, 116, 137, 148, 149, 
152, 153. 

At Dr. Shippen's, 134. 
London and Paris hospitals, 149. 
Long Island, 145. 

Retreat from, 136. 
Long Island Historical Society, 99. 
Lord Howe, 140. 

Lossing's "Home of Washington," 78. 
Louisa Court House, 127. 
Loyalty to the Crown, 134, 135. 
Luzerne County, 146. 
McCarty, Ann, 120. 
McDougall, Alexander, 107. 
McGuire, J. C., 105. 
McHenry, James, 107. 
McLane, Mr., 91, 92. 
McLane, Allen, 107. 



McLane, Louis, sr., 81. 

Madison, James, 102, 107, 128. 

Madison's collection of Washington letters, 

100. 

Magazine of American History, 105. 
Mansion House plantation, 116. 
Manuscript books and papers, 94. 
Manuscript Journals of Congress, 86. 
Manuscripts of Gen. Washington, 79. 

Records, volume of, 85. 

Relating to French war, 86. 

Taken from Mount Vernon, 108. 

Taken to Boston, 79. 
Marchinton, Mr., 154. 
Marketing the fish from Mount Vernon, 12d. 
Marking pin, surveyor's, 97. 
"Mannion," 123. 
Marshall, Judge John, 74, 107. 
Marshall, Thomas, in Maryland, 123. 
Marshall's Life of Washington, 102. 
Maryland, State of, 105, 110, 137. 
Maryland Line, resignations in, 87. 

State line, 131. 

Mason, George, 107, 110, 124, 126, 127, 128. 
Masonic order, notice of, 120, 128, 152. 
Mason's Neck, 127. 
Mass meetings, 133, 136, 152. 
Mass meetings in Philadelphia, 140. 
Massachusetts Historical Society, 98, 103. 
Massachusetts members in Congress, 142. 
Massachusetts officers, resignations of, 8T. 
Master of musters, Pennsylvania, 138. 
Masters, Miss Mary, of Pennsylvania, 135. 
Mattapony River, 113, 116, 117. 
Mayor of Alexandria, 124. 
Mayor of Fredericksburg, 117. 
Mayor of Philadelphia, 140, 144. 
Mease, Mr., 125, 153. 
Mease, James, of Philadelphia, 139. 
Mease, John, 139. 
Measuring chain, 97. 
Medical Department of the Army, 148. 
Medical schools, 141. 
Medical studies, 142. 

In Europe, 147. 

Medicine among the Indians, 149 
Meetinghouse, 141. 
Member of Congress, dinner to, 137. 
Member of the old Congress, 146. 
Memorandum books of Washington, 74, 79, 

94, 97. 

Memorandum of books in library, 86. 
Memorial relics of Washington, 97. 
Memorialize the King, 126. 
Mercer, George, 107. 
Mercer, Hugh, 107. 
Mercer, John, 107. 
Merchants of Alexandria, 125. 
Meredith, Rees, 146. 



164 



AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 



Meredith, Samuel, 138, 146. 
Middle Department, Continental Army, 
general returns, 87. 

Surgeon-General, 150. 
Middle Temple, London, 142, 145. 
Middletown, Del., 181. 
Mifflin, Thomas, 136, 149, 151. 
Military letters, 78. 

Military organization of Philadelphia, 146. 
Military papers, 86. 
Military records, 108. 
Military reputation, 109. 
Military secretary to Washington, 145. 
Military service as major, 146. 

As surgeon, 147. 
Military stores, 86, 140. 

Returns of, 87, 90. 
Militia company of Virginia, 120. 
Militia, papers relating to, 86. 
Mill plantation farm, 122. 
Milner, William, 154. 
Minister of Great Britain, 150. 
Miscellaneous papers, 84, 86, 90, 92, 93. 
Moland, John, 137. 
Monmouth, battle of, 145, 147. 
Monroe, James, 107. 
Montague, David, 147. 
Montgomery County, Md., 79. 
Montgomery, John, 132. 
Moore, Samuel Preston, 151. 
Morgan, Daniel, 107. 
Morgan, Evan, 147. 

Morgan, John, Surgeon-General, 132, 147. 
Morris, Gouverneur, 107. 
Morris, Robert, 107, 124, 139. 
Morton, John, 151. 
Mother Country, 144. 
Mother of Washington, 78. 

Papers of, 78. 
Moultrie, William, 107. 
Mount Airy, 116, 153. 

Mount Vernon, 73, 75, 76, 77, 79, 80, 90, 92, 
95, 109, 116, 118, 120. 

Books at, 95. 

Estate of, 99, 116, 118. 

Library and manuscripts at, 79, 88, 110. 

Mansion at, 95, 122. 

Return to, 153. 

Servants at, 121. 

Treasures of, 108. 
Moylan, Mr., 124. 
Moylan, John, 124. 
Moylan, Stephen, 124. 
Muddy Hole plantation, 116, 118, 122, 128. 
Museum of New York State Library, 96. 
Hassau, West Indies, 121. 
Newberry Library, Chicago, 95. 
Ifeck plantation, 118, 123. 
Kelson, Thomas, 107. 
Nephew and heir, 75. 



New Castle, Del., 130, 131, 139, 153. 

New England, 133. 

New Hampshire Historical Society, 99, 105 

New Hampshire officers, resignations of, 87. 

New Hampshire State Library, 99. 

New Jersey, deputy secretary of, 145. 
Resignations of officers, 87. 
State of, 105. 

New Kent County, 113, 116. 

New meeting house, 147. 

New tavern, or city tavern, 132, 133, 141, 144, 
149, 150, 153. 

New Town on Chester, 131, 153. 

New York, 95. 

New York City, 144. 

New York Historical Society publications, 
105. 

New York State library, 95, 96, 104, U.5. 

Nicholas, John, 92. 

Nicholas, Robert Carter, treasurer, 114. 

Niles' register, 105. 

Noncombatants, 150. 

Non-importation agreement, 138. 

Non -importation resolutions, 109, 128. 

Norfolk, Va., 121. 

Norris, Mary, 138. 

Northampton, Pa., 144. 

Northampton County, Pa., 135, 152. 

North Carolina, resignation of officers, 87. 
State of, 105. 

Northern Department, 86. 

Northwestern frontier, 102. 

Northumberland County, Pa., 152. 

Northumberland, England, 120. 

Oath of allegiance to Congress, 89, 134. 

Oath of allegiance to the King, 134. 

Obigland, Scotland, 121. 

Official letters of Washington published in 

Boston, 103. 
Published in New York, 81, 103, 104. 

Officers, American and foreign, 84. 

Officers of the Army, 82, 84, 99. 

Ohio, State of, 105. 

Old and intimate friend, 121. 

Opinions of surviving generals of Revolu- 
tion, 96. 

Orderly book, 86, 92. 

Ornamental gardening, 137. 

Original letters received by Washington, 
82, 84. 

Original letters taken and copi-s substi- 
tuted, 90. 

Original records, 74. 

Oswald, Mr., 139. 

Overlooker at Mount Vernon, 122. 

Paine, Robert Treat, 142. 

Pamunkey River, 113, 116. 

Parker, Joseph, 151. 

Parole, declined to give, 139. 

Parole of Ed. Shippen, 142. 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S DIARY, 1774 TONER. 165 



Parole of James Hamilton, 144. 

Paroles taken of eminent citizens, 135. 

Parsons, Samuel H., 107. 

"Parson's Cause," 127. 

Patuxent River, 129, 130. 

Papers and journals, 75. 
In confusion, 78. 
In possession of George Corbin "Wash 

ington, 87. 
Prior to the Revolution, 78. 

Parliament, 126. 

Patriots of the Revolution, 114. 

Patron of art, 137. 

Pawling, Henry, 151. 

Pay and hospital returns, 90. 

Peace of Paris, 77. 

Peale, Charles Wilson, 131. 

Pearce, William, 99. 

Pearson, Isaac, 151. 

Pemberton, Joseph, 140. 

Pendleton, Edmund, 107, 110, 114, 117, 126, 
141. 

Pendleton, Philip, 126. 

Penn, John, Lieutenant Governor of Penn- 
sylvania, 134, 135, 144, 148. 

Penn, Richard, Lieutenant Governor of 
Pennsylvania, 135, 144, 148. 

Penn, Thomas, 149. 

Penn, William, 133, 144. 

Penns favored concessions, 135. 

Pennock, Joseph, 151. 

Pennsylvania, assembly of, members, 151. 

Pennsylvania Associator, 152. 

Pennsylvania Bank, 140. 

Pennsylvania Battalion, 146. 

Pennsylvania Gazette, 149, 152. 

Pennsylvania, first legislature convened, 
132. 

Pennsylvania Historical Society, 102, 104, 
108, 114. 

Pennsylvania Hospital, 132, 141, 146, 148. 
Surgeon in, 150. 

Pennsylvania Magazine of History, 105t 
135. 

Pennsylvania Militia, 147. 

Pennsylvania officers, resignations of, 87. 

Pennsylvania troops, 136, 147. 

Pension from British Government, 134. 

People in free hustings, 133. 

Permanent union suggested, 133. 

Personal memoirs, 100. 

Perth, Scotland, 138. 

Pesthouse on Province Island, 136. 

Peter, Mrs., 99. 

Petition to the King, 110, 138. 

Philadelphia, 73, 77, 109, 110. 

Central to all the Colonies, 128. 

Philadelphia and Lancaster, 137. 

Philadelphia County, 149, 151. 

Philadelphia Dispensary, 150. 

Physician in chief to American Army, 148. 



Piankatank River, 116. 

Pickering, Timothy, 107. 

Pinckney, Charles CoteBworth, 107. 

Pinckney, Thomas, 107, 

Pistole fee, 114, 115. 

Pistol from Gen. Lafayette, 96. 

Plan of confederation of colonies, 126. 

Plan of Mount Vernon, 105. 

Plantation in King William County, 116. 

Pleasants, Samuel, 133. 

Plowable land, 118. 

Pohick Bay, 125. 

Pohick church, 119, 125, 128. 
Vestry of, 128. 

Pohick Creek, 119. 

Pohick new church built, 119. 

Pointon Manor, Md., 125. 

Political History of our country, 81. 

Pomits Run, 123. 

Poole, W. F., librarian, 95. 

Port of Annapolis, 130. 

Port Royal, 117. 

Port Tobacco, 110, 121, 125. 

Portico at Mount Vernon, 121. 

Posey, Capt. John, 122, 123. 

Posey, Col. Thomas, 123. 

Posey Plantation, 122, 123. 

Potomac River, 76, 110. 

Powder removed from magazine, 127. 

President of Congress, 80, 81, 126, 136. 

President of Delaware, 138. 

President of the Republic, 75. 

President of Second Provincial Congress , 145. 

President of Virginia Convention, 126. 

President of William and Mary College, 115. 

Presbyterian church, 141. 

Pretender's defeat, 137. 

Primogeniture abolished in Maryland, 126, 

Prince George County, Md., 129, 130, 153. 

Prince William County planters, 118. 

Princeton, N. J., 116, 120, 132. 
Attack on, 139. 
Battle of, 124. 

Princeton College, 141, 145, 149. 

Printed books, 89. 

Private libraries rich in Washington auto- 
graphs, 105. 
Private papers, 88, 92. 
Reserved, 88, 91. 
Retained, 91. 
Prizes taken at sea, 152. 
Property confiscated, 134. 
Protracting instruments, 97. 
Province Island, 136, 149. 
Province of Pennsylvania, 149. 
Provincial Congress, 150. 

Second, 145. 

Provincial council, 143, 149, 
Provincial council of Pennsylvania, 134, 142, 

144. 
Provincial governor of Virginia, 98. 



166 



AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 



Provisions, returns of, 90. 

Public buildings in Philadelphia, 144. 

Public dinners, 137. 

Public affairs, letters on, 90. 

Public and private manuscripts, 85, 88. 

Putnam, Israel, 107. 

Quaker meetinghouse, 140. 

Quartermaster's Department, 136. 

Quartermaster-General, 136. 

Quartermaster's returns, 87, 89. 

Quarantine hospital, 136. 

Quebec, address to inhabitants of, 138. 

Queen Anne County, 131, 134. 

Queen Anne village, 130. 

Races in Philadelphia, 135. 

Raleigh tavern, 113. 

Ramsay, Dennis, 120. 

Ramsay, Capt. William, 119, 120, 121. 

Ramsay, Dr. William, 120, 122. 

Randolph, Edmund, 102, 107, 115. 

Randolph, John, 115. 

Randolph, Sir John, 115. 

Randolph, Peyton, 114, 115, 133, 141. 

Raney, John, 151. 

Rappahannock plantations, 116. 

Rappahannock River, 117. 

Rawlins, Mr., 78. 

Records of the Government, 81, 83. 

"Red Hill," Charlotte County, 127. 

Redman, Dr. John, 147, 149. 

Reed, Joseph, 101, 107, 145. 

Refused compensation for services, 150. 

Regimental returns, 89. 

Register of wills, Pennsylvania, 139. 

Relics of Gen. Washington, 95, 96. 

Commercial value of, 108. 

Fad in, 107. 

How disposed, 108. 

Reserved Washington papers, 82, 89, 90, 93. 
Reports of guards, 89. 
Republic, 73, 74. 

Resignations and discharges, 87. 
Resignations of officers by States, 89. 
Resting place of Washington relics, 110. 
Resolutions offered by Patrick Henry, 127. 
Revolutionary Army, 86. 
Revolutionary War, records of events, 85. 

Papers on, 81, 83, 84, 190. 
Rhoads, Samuel, 151. 
Rhode Island, State of, 105. 
Rhode Island officers, resignations of, 87. 
Richmond, Va., 113, 117, 126, 133. 
Rights of the colonies, 127. 
Ringgold, James, 130. 
River farm plantation, 116, 118. 
River View farm, 118. 
"Riversdale,"153. 
Roberdeau, Daniel, 152. 
Roberdeau, Isaac, 152, 153. 
Roberts, Charles, 105. 



Roberts, Jonathan, 151. 

Robinson, Benjamin, 126. 

Robinson, John, 107, 114. 

Rochambeau, Gen., 102. 

Correspondence of, with Washington 
102. 

Rock Hall, 153. 

Rock Hall Ferry, 130, 131. 

Rockville, Montgomery County, Md., 96. 

Rodman, William, 151. 

Romish Church, 147. 

Ross, George, 151, 152. 

Ross, John, 138, 151. 

Round Hill, 128. 

Roy, Boswell, 117. 

Royal Collector of Potomac, 119. 

Royal Society of London. 148. 

Roy's ordinary, 117. 

Roy's warehouse, 117. 

Royston's, Caroline Co., 117, 

Rowboat, 110. 

Rules of good behavior, 93. 

Rumney, John, & Co., 121. 

Rumney, Dr. William, 119, 120, 121. 

Rumney, William, merchant, 121, 122. 

Rush, Dr. Benjamin, 149. 

Rush, John, 149. 

Rutledge, Edward, 107. 

Rutledge, John, 107. 

St. Clair, Arthur, 102, 107. 

St. John's College, Maryland, 116, 135. 

St. Mary's Catholic church, 147. 

St. Peter's church, Episcopal, 140, 141. 

Sale at Belvoir, 121. 

Sale of books from Mount Yernoii, 97. 

Sale of part of Mount Vernon library, 97. 

Sale of relics, 108. 

Sassafras River, 130, 131. 

Schedule of Washington papers, 85, 86, 93. 

Schnyler, Philip, 102, 107. 

Schuylkill River, 136. 

Scotland, 120. 

Second Congress, 142. 

Secretary of State, 80, 83, 87, 88, 89, 91, 127. 

Senator elect, 127. 

Severn River, 130. 

Shelton, Miss, 127. 

Sherman, Roger, 107. 

Shippen, Edward, 135, 141, 142. 

Shippen, Joseph, 141. 

Shippen, Margaret, 142. 

Shippen, WiUiam, sr., 139, 141, 143. 

Shippen, Dr. William, jr., 132, 133, 134, 142, 
145. 

Shipping merchants, 118, 138, 139. 

Shrewsbury, Pa., 146. 

Signers of the TJ. S. Constitution, 105. 

Signers of the Declaration oi Independ- 
ence, 105, 110, 150, 152. 

Silk hose, 154. 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S DIAKY, 1774 TONER. 167 



"Silk Stocking Company," 146. 

Sinclair, John, 107. 

Sinclair, Sir John, 124. 

Sixth Lord Baltimore, 153. 

Slaughter, Mrs. Ann, 124. 

Slough, Matthias, 152. 

Smelting lead works in Pennsylvania, 152. 

Smith, Thomas, 146, 149. 

Society of the Cincinnati, 125. 

Society for Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, 

144. 

Society of Friends, 140, 141. 
South Carolina, State of, 105. 
Southern Literary Messinger, 98. 
Sparks, Jared, 73, 74, 78, 79, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 

88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 99, 100, 103, 104, 108. 
Speaker of house of delegates, 139. 
Speaker of Virginia assembly, 114, 127. 
Spencer, Hall, 130. 
Spencer, James, 130. 
Spencer, Richard, 130. 
Spotswood, Alexander, 107. 
Spottsylvania County, Va. , 117. 
Sprague, Rev. "William B., 90. 
Stafford County, Va., 118. 
Stamp Act, remonstrance to, 115. 
Stamp Act void, 126, 127. 
State assembly of Pennsylvania, 135, 137. 
State dinner, the first, 150. 
State government, 127. 
State House, 137. 

State House, Mass-meeting at, 152. 
State island, 136. 
State papers, 83. 
Steel, Rosalie, 153. 
Stephen, Adam, 107. 
Steuben, Baron, 107. 
Stevens, Henry, of London, 95, 97. 
Stewarts, family of, 125. 
Stirling, Lord, 107. 
Stockton, Julia, 150. 
Stockton, Richard, 150. 
Stockton, Robert, 145. 
Stone, David, 125. 
Stone, Thomas, 110, 125. 
Stone, Governor William, 125 V 
Stone tile for portico at Mount Vernon, 121. 
Storeroom near Alexandria, 120. 
Stuart, Charles, 153. 
Stuart, David, 107, 116, 125. 
"Studley," Hanover County, 127. 
Sullivan, John, 107. 

"Sultana" won the race second day, 135. 
Supplies for the Army, 140. 
Supreme executive council of Pennsylvania 

136. 

Supreme court, prothonotary of, 142, 144. 
Surveying instruments, 96. 
Surveyors of the port, 139. 
Surveyors' plats, returned to counties, 98. 



Surgeon in Army, 121. 

Surgeon in Pennsylvania navy, 150. 

Surgeon in Revolution, 121, 125. 

Swan Point, Maryland, 130. 

Swedes on Delaware, 131. 

Swoope, Michael, 152. 

Swords of Gen. Washington, 96. 

Sydenham of America, 150. 

Talmage, Benjamin, 107. 

Tax bill impracticable, 127. 

Tazewell Hall, Virginia., 114, 115. 

Telescope devised, 125. 

Temple in London, 135, 137, 140. 

Tennent, Rev. Gilbert, 147. 

Terrapin found, habitat on Chester Run, 131. 

Theory and practice of medicine, 148. 

Thomas, governor of Pennsylvania, 137. 

Thomson, Charles, secretary, 133. 151. 

Thompson, William, 152. 

Three lower counties, Delaware, 139. 

Tide- water villages of Virginia, 76. 

Tilghman family, 135. 

Tilghman, James, 107, 134, 139. 

Tilghman, Tench, 107. 

Tilghman, William, 107. 

Titles, number in Washington Library, 95. 

Toasts at dinner, 151. 

Tobacco-rolling house, 123. 

Todd's bridge, 116, 117. 

Todd's ordinary, 117, 

Toner Collection, 106. 

Transcript letter books, 77. 

Treasurer of the United States, 146. 

Treasurer of United States Mint, 150. 

Treasurer of Virginia, 114. 

Treaties with Indians, 133. 

Trenton, N.J., 145. 

Battle of, 150. 
Triplett, Francis, 128. 
Triplett, Philip, 128. 
Triplett, Thomas, 126, 128. 
Triplett, William, 128. 
Tripod, or Jacob's Staff, 97. 
Troops enlisted, 136. 
Truck garden, 137. 

Trumbull, Gen. Jonathan, 98, 104, 107. 
Trumbull papers, 98. 
Truro Parish, Va., 93, 119. 
Tyler, Thomas G., of Aquia, 117. 
Union ship at Philadelphia, 149. 
United States, 79, 80, 83, 89, 94. 
United States, archives of, 98. 
United States Government, 79.J83. 
United States Senator, 128. 
United States, Treasurer of, 146. 
Unpublished Washington letters, 100. 
Upland, Chester County, Pa., 132. 
Upper Marlboro, 110, 126, 129, 153. 
Upper Potomac, 120. 
University of Edinburgh, 121, 132, 148, 149. 



168 



AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 



University of Pennsylvania, 132, 141, 148. 

Valley Forge, suffering at, 136. 

Valley of Virginia, surveys in, 98, 122. 

Vaucluse, Va., 121. 

Venison dinner, 146. 

Vestryman of Pohick Church, 128. 

Vice-admiralty judge, 142. 

Virginia, capital of, 113. 

Virginia convention, 113, 114, 115, 126, 128, 

133. 

Virginia delegates to Congress, 141. 
Virginia gentlemen, members, 141. 
Virginia Historical Kegister, 98. 
Virginia Historical Society, 97, 98. 
Virginia Line, 86. 

Virginia officers, resignations of, 87. 
Virginia troops, 121. 
Virginia State library, 98. 
Visitors, at Mount Vernon, 110. 
Visitors of William and Mary College, 115. 
Volumes of Washington's diary, 74. 
Volunteer aid to Washington, 147. 
Vouchers preserved by Washington, 75. 
Voyage to Barbadoes, 94. 
Wales, Great Britain, 146, 147. 
War between the States, 97. 
War for independence, 74. 
" Warburton," Fort Washington, 126. 
Ward, Artemas, 107. 
Warren, James, 107. 
Warren, John, 107. 
Warren, Joseph, 107. 
Washington, Augustine, father of George, 

117. 
Washington, Lawrence, half brother of 

George, 79. 
Washington, Justice Bushrod, 74, 79, 81, 82, 

90,91,92,95,96,97,108. 
Washington, Catherine, 117. 
Washington, Gen. George, 80, 81, 113, 114, 
135, 141, 142. 

Agent for G. W. Fairfax, 122. 

As a speaker, 110. 

Autographs in books, 97. 

Autograph letters, 82, 83. 

Autograph manuscripts, 82, 86. 

Autographs numerous, 103. 

Book plate, 107. 

Books and manuscripts, 79. 

Bought pew, 119. 

Busy life, 109. 

Cash book, 153. 

Care of papers, 75. 

Chairman of meeting, 128. 

Contributes to expense of convention. 
133. 

Correspondents of, 106. 

Cyphering book, 93. 

Death of, 78. 

Devise of his library, 75. 



Washington, Gen. George Continued: 
Diary, 88, 97, 110, 111. 
Directions as to his property, 78. 
Drafts of letters preserved, 97, 100. 
Early life records in his manuscript, 74. 
Estimate of his papers, 76. 
Expenses in the Army, 76. 
Expenses in Congress, 153. 
Expenses in Presidential office, 82. 
Family papers, 80. 
Farm manager, 99. 
French poetry on, 87. 
Gift of "Woodlawn " to Lewis, 90. 
Heirs, gratitude of, 108. 
House in Williamsburg, 114. 
Journals and diaries, 77, 88, 110. 
Jomrnal as President, 82. 
Ledger, 115. 
Letters destroyed, 99. 
Letters in the great libraries, 88, 106. 
Letters, miscellaneous, 80, 87. 
Letters on public affairs, 109, 111. 
Letters, publication of, 105. 
Letters, press copies of, 100. 
Letters, private and official, 97. 
Letters to Congress, 84, 90. 
Letters to governor of Virginia, 98. 
Letters, unpublished, 100. 
Letters, where to be found, 100. 
Library, appraisement of, 78, 79, 83. 
Library, part of, sold, 97. 
Life and correspondence, 74, 83. 
Life and writings, by Sparks, 100. 
Literary remains, 98, 106. 
Manuscripts, 89, 103. 
Marriage, 116. 

Masonic lodge, a member of, 128. 
Memoir of, proposed, 77. 
Memorandums, value of, 97, 114. 
Memorials, 97. 
Mother, 117, 154. 

Papers, bill for purchase of, 83, 90. 
Papers delivered, 89, 92. 
Papers desired by the Government, 82. 
Papers essential in writing life of, 77. 
Papers, extent of, 74, 80, 81, 82. 
Papers liable to destruction. 82. 
Papers of high historic value, 82. 
Papers packed for removal, 76. 
Papers in hands of Sparks, 83. 
Papers, price paid for, 84, 92. 
Papers, preservation of, 100, 106. 
Papers purchased, 83. 
Papers systematically arranged, 75. 
Personal expenses, 76. 
Plantations, 116. 
Plats of surveys, 98. 
Purchases in Philadelphia, 153. 
Politeness of, 123. 
Popularity of, 111. 



GEORGE WASHINGTON'S DIARY, 1774 TONER. 169 



Washington, Gen. George Continued : 

Preserver of records, 75. 

Relics, 95, 96, 107, 108. 

Relics, sale of, 95, 96. 

Remaining papers, 93. 

Resigns command, 136. 

Servants and horses, 131. 

Stepson, 116. 

Swords, 96. 

Trustee of Alexandria, 123. 

Vesteryman, 119. 

Voluminous writer, 75. 

Watch and chain, 96. 

Without vanity, 77. 

Writings, 73. 

Writings, no complete collection of, 101. 
Washington, Hon. Geo. Corbin, 79, 80, 81, 

83, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 93, 94, 95, 96. 
Washington, James Barroll, 96. 
Washington, Jane, 79. 
Washington, John Augustine, 79, 95, 97. 
Washington, Col. Lewis William, 80, 96. 
Washington, Mrs. Col. Lewis Wm., 96. 
Washington, Lund, directed the destruc- 
tion of General's letters, 99, 119. 
Washington, Lund, jr., 94, 95. 
Washington, Martha, 99, 120, 123, 153. 
Washington, Mary, mother of George, 117, 

154. 

Washington, William Augustine, 79. 
Washington City, letters relating to, 87. 
Watch, gold, chain, and seal, 96. 
Waters, Israel, 135. 
Wayne, Anthony, 107, 151, 152. 
Weare, Governor Meshech, 90, 107. 
Weaver, Mr. 92. 
Webb, James, 152. 
West, Benjamin, artist, 148. 
West, Hugh, 119. 
West, Sybil, 119. 
West Indies, 121, 152. 
West Philadelphia, 137. 
West Point, 86. 
West River, 199. 



West Virginia, 96. 

Westcott, Charles T., 131. 

Westmoreland County, Vs., 152. 

West's painting of Christ healing the 

sick, 148. 

Wharton, Joseph, 148. 
Where and how my time is spent, 113, 130, 

144. 

White Haven, England, 121. 
White House, New Kent, 116. 
Whipped syllabubs, 140. 
Wilmington, Del., 131, 132, 137. 
Will of Justice B. Washington, 79, 88. 
Will of General Washington, 88. 
William and Mary College, 114, 115. 
Williamsburg, Va., 109, 113, 114, 115, 118. 
Willing, Thomas, 140, 150. 
Willing and Norris, 140. 
Willis, Francis, sr., 118. 
Willis, Mr. Francis, jr., 118. 
Willis, Lewis, 118. 
Wilson, James, 107. 
Winchester, troops at, 121, 153. 
Winsor's historj of America, 90. 
Wisconsin, State of, 105. 
Wisest of statesmen, 128. 
Witherspoon, Rev. John, 76, 78, 10T. 
Wolcott, Oliver, 107. 
Wood, James, 107. 
Wood Lawn farm, 90. 
Woodford, William, 107. 
Woodlands on the Schuylkill, 137. 
Woodstock, 128. 
Wooster, David, 107. 
Wynkoop, Gerardus, 151. 
Wythe, Chancellor, 127. 
Yellow fever in Philadelphia, 15*. 
Young, Arthur, letter to, 122. 
York County, 152. 
York River, 113. 
Yorktown, 116, 153. 
Zantzinger, William C., 95. 
Zeugea, John Peter, 144.